Sanskrit names for food

Yoga Glossary: ​​Your personal Sanskrit dictionary

ācāryaआचार्यAcarya (sometimes spelled Acharya): a teacher, instructor; see GuruAcarya (sometimes spelled Acharya in English): a preceptor, instructor; cf. guruadvaitaअद्वैतAdvaita ("non-duality"): the truth and the teaching that there is only one reality (Atman, Brahman). Known from the Upanishads, see also VedantaAdvaita ("nonduality"): the truth and teaching that there is only One Reality (Atman, Brahman), especially as found in the Upanishads; see also VedantaahaṃkāraअहंकारAhamkara ("I principle"): the principle of individuality or ego that must be overcome; see asmita; see also Buddhi, ManasAhamkara ("I-maker"): the individuation principle, or ego, which must be transcended; cf. asmita; see also buddhi, manasahimsaअहिंसाAhimsa ("not hurting"): the most important moral discipline (yama)Ahimsa ("nonharming"): the single most important moral discipline (yama)ākāśaआकाशAkasha ("ether / space"): the first of the five elements that make up the physical universe; also known as "inner" space, i.e. the space of consciousness (cid-akasha)Akasha ("ether / space"): the first of the five material elements of which the physical universe is composed; Also used to designate "inner" space, that is, the space of consciousness (called cid-akasha)amṛtaअमृतAmrita ("immortal / immortality"): a designation of the immortal spirit (Atman, Purusha); also known as the nectar of immortality, which shines when the crown chakra is activated (seesahasrara-chakra) and transforms the body into a "divine body" (divya-deha)Amrita ("immortal / immortality"): a designation of the deathless Spirit (atman, purusha); also the nectar of immortality that oozes from the psychoenergetic center at the crown of the head (seesahasrara-cakra) when it is activated and transforms the body into a "divine body" (divya-deha)ānandaआनन्दAnanda ("happiness"): the state of total joy, which is an essential quality of ultimate reality (Tattva)Ananda ("bliss"): the condition of utter joy, which is an essential quality of the ultimate Reality (tattva)aṅgaअङ्गAnga ("limb, part"): a basic category of the yoga paths such as asana, dharana, dhyana, niyama, pranayama, pratyahara, samadhi, yamaAnga ("limb"): a fundamental category of the yogic path, such as asana, dharana, dhyana, niyama, pranayama, pratyahara, samadhi, yama; also the body (deha, sharira)arjunaअर्जुनArjuna ("White"): one of the five Pandava princes who fought in war (as shown in the Mahabharata). Arjuna is a disciple of Krishna, whose teachers can be found in the Bhagavad Gita.Arjuna ("White"): one of the five Pandava princes who fought in the great war depicted in the Mahabharata, disciple of the God-man Krishna whose teachings can be found in the Bhagavad GitaāsanaआसनAsana ("sitting"): a body posture (see also Anga, Mudra)Asana ("seat"): a physical posture (see also anga, mudra); the third limb (anga) of Patanjali'seightfold path (astha-anga-yoga); originally this meant only meditation posture, but subsequently, in hatha yoga, this aspect of the yogic path was greatly developedashramआश्रमAshram ("where the effort is made"): a place for people who want to retreat; also a phase of life, such as brahmacharya, housekeeper, forest dweller, and ascetic (samnyasin)Ashrama ("that where effort is made"): a hermitage; Also a stage of life, such as brahmacharya, householder, forest dweller, and complete renouncer (samnyasin)aṣṭāṅgaअष्टांगAshtanga Yoga ("eight-part union"): eight-part yoga of Patanjali, consisting of moral discipline (yama), self-control (niyama), posture (asana), breath control (pranayama), sensory control (pratyahara), concentration (dharana) ), Meditation (dhyana) and joy (samadhi), which leads to liberation (kaivalya)Ashta-anga-yoga, ashtanga-yoga ("eight-limbed union"): the eightfold yoga of Patanjali, consisting of moral discipline (yama), self-restraint (niyama), posture (asana), breath control (pranayama), sensory inhibition (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and ecstasy (samadhi), leading to liberation (kaivalya)asmitāअस्मिताAsmita ("I am"): Yoga concept of Patanjali Yoga, similar to WithahamkaraAsmita ("I-am-ness"): a concept of Patanjali's eight-limbed yoga, roughly synonymous withahamkaraBreath (prana) as it moves in the body; the individualized consciousness (jiva) driven by the breath; see Jiva-Atman; see also parama-hamsaātmanआत्मन्Atman ("self"): the superconscious, our true nature or identity; see also purusha; see BrahminAtman ("self"): the transcendental self, or spirit, which is eternal and superconscious; our true nature or identity; sometimes a distinction is made between the atman as the individual self and theparama-atman as the transcendental self; see also purusha; cf. brahmanavadhūtaअवधूतAvadhuta ("he, has shed [everything]"): a radical kind of renunciation (samnyasin)Avadhuta ("he who has shed [everything]"): a radical type of renouncer (samnyasin) who often engages in unconventional behavioravidyāअविद्याAvidya ("ignorance"): the cause of suffering (Duhkha); also called ajnana; see vidyaAvidya ("ignorance"): the root cause of suffering (duhkha); also called ajnana; cf. vidyaAyurvedaआयुर्वेदAyurveda, Ayur Veda - ("life science"): traditional Indian type of medicine / treatmentAyurveda, Ayur-Veda ("life science"): one of India's traditional systems of medicine, the other being South India's Siddha medicinebandhaबन्धBandha ("bond / bondage"): the fact that habit usually rules people's lives, not inner freedom or wisdom (Vidya, Jnana)Bandha ("bond / bondage"): the fact that human beings are typically bound by ignorance (avidya), which causes them to lead a life governed by karmic habit rather than inner freedom generated through wisdom (vidya, jnana)mokṣaमोक्षMoksha (liberation)bhagavad gita भगवद्गीताBhagavad Gita ("Song of the Lord"): the oldest full-fledged yoga book with teachings on karma yoga, samkhya yoga and bhakti yoga.Bhagavad Gita ("Lord's Song"): the oldest full-fledged yoga book found embedded in theMahabharata and containing the teachings on karma yoga (the path of self-transcending action), samkhya yoga (the path of discerning the principles of existence correctly) , and bhakti yoga (the path of devotion), as given by the God-man Krishna to Prince Arjuna on the battlefield 3,500 years or more agobhāgavata-purāṇaभागवतपुराणBhagavata-Purana ("Tradition of the Bhagavatas"): Scripture from the 10th century by the followers of Krishna; also called Shrimad-BhagavataBhagavata-Purana ("Ancient [Tradition] of the Bhagavatas"): a voluminous tenth-century scripture held sacred by the devotees of the Divine in the form of Vishnu, especially in his incarnate form as Krishna; also called Shrimad-Bhagavatabhaktaभक्तिBhakta ("fanatic"): Bhakti Yoga studentsBhakta ("devotee"): a disciple practicing bhakti yogabhakthiभक्थिBhakti ("devotion / love"): the love of the bhakta towards the divine or the guruBhakti ("devotion / love"): the love of the bhakta toward the Divine or the guru as a manifestation of the Divine; also the love of the Divine toward the devoteebhakti yogaभक्ति योगBhakti Yoga ("Yoga of Devotion"): a type of yogaBhakti Yoga ("Yoga of devotion"): a major branch of the yoga tradition, utilizing the feeling capacity to connect with the ultimate Reality conceived as a supreme person (uttama-purusha)bhakti-sutraभक्तिसुत्रBhakti Sutra: a devotional work on aphoristic yogaBhakti-Sutra ("Aphorisms on Devotion"): an aphoristic work on devotional yoga authored by Sage Narada; Another text by the same title is ascribed to Sage ShandilyaI am youबिंदुBindu ("seed / point"): the point (also called tilaka) on the forehead to which all energies are directed; worn as a reference to the third eyeBindu ("seed / point"): the creative potency of anything where all energies are focused; the dot (also called tilaka) worn on the forehead as indicative of the third eyebodhiबोधिBodhi ("enlightenment"): the state of the awakened master or BuddhaBodhi ("enlightenment"): the state of the awakened master, or buddhabodhisattvaबोधिसत्त्वBodhisattva ("Enlightenment of Being"): Person who, motivated by compassion (Karuna), works for the attainment of enlightenment for the benefit of all other beingsBodhisattva ("enlightenment being"): in Mahayana Buddhist yoga, the individual who, motivated by compassion (karuna), is committed to achieving enlightenment for the sake of all other beingsbrahmanब्रह्मन्Brahma ("he, expansively grown"): the creator of the universeBrahma ("he who has grown expansive"): the Creator of the universe, the first principle (tattva) to emerge out of the ultimate Reality (brahman)brahmacharyaब्रह्मचर्यBrahmacharya (from Brahma and Acarya "Brahmic behavior"): the discipline of chastityBrahmacharya (from brahma and acarya "brahmic conduct"): the discipline of chastity, which produces ojasBrahman ("that which has grown expansive"): the ultimate Reality (cf. atman, purusha)brāhmaṇaब्राह्मणBrahmin: a Brahmin, a member of the highest social class of traditional Indian societyBrahmana: a brahmin, a member of the highest social class of traditional Indian society; also an early type of ritual text explicating the rituals and mythology of the four Vedas; cf. Aranyaka, Upanishad, VedaBuddhaबुद्धBuddha ("awakened"): term for a person who has reached enlightenment (bodhi) and thus inner freedom; Honorary title of Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, who lived in the sixth century BC. LivedBuddha ("awakened"): a designation of the person who has attained enlightenment (bodhi) and therefore inner freedom; honorific title of Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, who lived in the sixth century B.C.E.buddhiबुद्धिBuddhi ("the one who is conscious"): the higher spirit, the seat of wisdom (Vidya, Jnana); see ManasBuddhi ("she who is conscious, awake"): the higher mind, which is the seat of wisdom (vidya, jnana); cf. manasBuddhi, manas; the ultimate reality (see also Atman, Brahman)chakraचक्रCakra or Chakra ("wheel"): literally the wheel of a cart; metaphorically, one of the psycho-energetic centers of the body (sukshma-sharira); In Buddhist yoga five such centers are described, while in Hindu yoga seven or more such centers are often known: mel-adhara-chakra (muladhara-chakra) at the base of the spine, svadhisthana-cakra on the genitals , manipura-chakraat on the navel, anahata-chakra in the heart, vishuddha-chakra or vishuddhi-chakra on the throat, ajna-chakra in the middle of the head, and sahasrara-chakra on the top of the headCakra or Chakra ("wheel"): literally, the wheel of a wagon; metaphorically, one of the psycho-energetic centers of the subtle body (sukshma-sharira); in Buddhist yoga, five such centers are known, while in Hindu yoga often seven or more such centers are mentioned: mula-adhara-cakra (muladhara-cakra) at the base of the spine, svadhishthana-cakra at the genitals, manipura-cakraat the navel, anahata-cakra at the heart, vishuddha-cakra or vishuddhi-cakra at the throat, ajna-cakra in the middle of the head, and sahasrara-cakra at the top of the headchinmudrāछिन्मुद्रCin-Mudra ("Awareness Seal"): a common meditation gesture in which the tips of the index finger and thumb touch while the other fingers are straightCin-mudra ("consciousness seal"): a common hand gesture (mudra) in meditation (dhyana), which is formed by bringing the tips of the index finger and the thumb together, while the remaining fingers are kept straightcitचित्Cit ("superconscious"): the superconscious (see Atman, Brahman)Cit ("consciousness"): the superconscious ultimate Reality (see atman, brahman)cittaचित्तCitta ("that which is consciousness"): ordinary consciousness, as opposed to citCitta ("that which is conscious"): ordinary consciousness, the mind, as opposed to citdarśanaदर्शनDarshana ("to see"): vision in the literal and figurative sense; a yoga philosophy from Patanjali; see drishtiDarshana ("seeing"): vision in the literal and metaphorical sense; a system of philosophy, such as the yoga-darshana of Patanjali; cf. drishtidevaदेवDeva ("he, seems"): a male deity like Shiva, Vishnu or Krishna, in the image of an angelDeva ("he who is shining"): a male deity, such as Shiva, Vishnu, or Krishna, either in the sense of the ultimate Reality or a high angelic beingdevīदेवीDevi ("she who shines"): a female deity like Parvati, Lakshmi, or Radha, in the image of an angelDevi ("she who is shining"): a female deity such as Parvati, Lakshmi, or Radha, either in the sense of the ultimate Reality (in its feminine pole) or a high angelic beingdhāraṇāधारणाDharana ("Holding"): Sixth part (anga) of PatanjaliDharana ("holding"): concentration, the sixth limb (anga) of Patanjali's eight-limbed yogadharmaधर्मDharma ("bearer"): a term that has numerous meanings; often used in the sense of "law", "legality", "virtue", "justice", "norm"Dharma ("bearer"): a term of numerous meanings; often used in the sense of "law," "lawfulness," "virtue," "righteousness," "norm"dhyānaध्यानDhyana: Meditation, the seventh part (anga) of PatanjaliDhyana ("ideating"): meditation, the seventh limb (anga) of Patanjali's eight-limbed yogadīkṣāदीक्षाDiksha ("initiation"): initiation into the hidden aspects of yoga or a particular teachingDiksha ("initiation"): the act and condition of induction into the hidden aspects of yoga or a particular lineage of teachers; all traditional yoga is initiatorydṛṣṭiदृष्टिDrishti ("view / view"): ??? Yoga, such as at the tip of the nose or between the eyebrows; see darshanaDrishti ("view / sight"): yogic gazing, such as at the tip of the nose or the spot between the eyebrows; cf. darshanaduḥkhaदुःखDuhkha ("bad axis of space"): suffering, a fundamental fact of life; caused by ignorance (avidya)Duhkha ("bad axle space"): suffering, a fundamental fact of life, caused by ignorance (avidya) of our true nature (i.e., the Self or atman)gāyatrī mantraगायत्री मन्त्रGayatri mantra: a famous mantra especially at sunriseGayatri-mantra: a famous Vedic mantra recited particularly at sunrise: tat savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yo nah pracodayatgheraṇḍasaṃhitāधेरंड संहिता Gheranda-Samhita ("[Sage] Gheranda Compendium"): one of the three great handbooks of the classicGheranda-Samhita ("[Sage] Gheranda's Compendium"): one of three major manuals of classical hatha yoga, composed in the seventeenth century; cf. Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika, Shiva-Samhitagorakṣaगोरक्षGoraksha ("Cow Protector"): traditionally, the founding adept of Hatha Yoga said to be a student of MatsyendraGoraksha ("Cow Protector"): traditionally said to be the founding adept of hatha yoga, a disciple of Matsyendragranthiग्रन्थिGranthi ("knot"): one of three common blockages in the central path (Sushumna-Nadi) prevents the full rise of the serpentine power (Kundalini-Shakti); The three knots are known asbrahma-granthi (at the lowest psycho center of the subtle body), the Vishnu-granthi (in the heart) and the Rudra-granthi (at the middle of the eyebrow)Granthi ("knot"): any one of three common blockages in the central pathway (sushumna-nadi) preventing the full ascent of the serpent power (kundalini-shakti); the three knots are known asbrahma-granthi (at the lowest psychoenergetic center of the subtle body), the vishnu-granthi (at the heart), and the rudra-granthi (at the eyebrow center)guṇaगुणGuna ("quality"): a term that has many meanings, including "virtue"; often refers to one of the three primary "qualities" or components of nature (Prakriti): Tamas (principle of indolence), Rajas (the dynamic principle), and Sattva (principle of clarity)Guna ("quality"): a term that has numerous meanings, including "virtue"; often to any of the three primary "qualities" or constituents of nature (prakriti): tamas (the principle of inertia), rajas (the dynamic principle), and sattva (the principle of lucidity)guruगुरुGuru ("who is heavy, weighty"): a spiritual teacher; see acaryaGuru ("he who is heavy, weighty"): a spiritual teacher; cf. acaryaguru-bhaktiगुरु भक्तिGuru-Bhakti ("teacher devotion"): a student's self-transcendent devotion to the guru; see alsobhaktiGuru-bhakti ("teacher devotion"): a disciple's self-transcending devotion to the guru; see alsobhaktigītāगीताGuru-Gita ("Guru Song"): a text in praise of the Guru, often chanted in ashramasGuru-Gita ("Guru's Song"): a text in praise of the guru, often chanted in ashramasguru yogaगुरु योगGuru Yoga ("yoga [about] the teacher"): an approach to yoga that makes the guru the fulcrum of a student's practice; all traditional forms of yoga contain a strong element of guru yogaGuru-Yoga ("Yoga [relating to] the teacher"): a yogic approach that makes the guru the fulcrum of a disciple's practice; all traditional forms of yoga contain a strong element of guru-yogahaṃsaहंसHamsa ("Schwanen / Gänserich"): In addition to the literal meaning, this term also refers to theHamsa ("swan / gander"): apart from the literal meaning, this term also refers to the breath (prana) as it moves within the body; the individuated consciousness (jiva) propelled by the breath; see jiva-atman; see also parama-hamsahaṭha yogaहठ योगHatha Yoga ("Forceful Yoga"): a major branch of Yoga, developed by Goraksha and other adepts c. 1000 CE, and the emphasis on the physical aspects of the transformative path, especially postures (asanas) and cleansing techniques (shodhana), but also breath control (pranayama)Hatha Yoga ("Forceful Yoga"): a major branch of yoga, developed by Goraksha and other adepts c. 1000 C.E., and emphasizing the physical aspects of the transformative path, notably postures (asana) and cleansing techniques (shodhana), but also breath control (pranayama)haṭhapradīpikāहठप्रदिपिकाHatha Yoga Pradipika ("Light to Hatha Yoga"): one of the three classic handbooks on Hatha Yoga, written by Svatmarama Yogendra in the fourteenth centuryHatha Yoga Pradipika ("Light on Hatha Yoga"): one of three classical manuals on hatha yoga, authored by Svatmarama Yogendra in the fourteenth centuryhatha yogaHatha yoga, composed in the seventeenth century; see Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika, Shiva-SamhitaHinduismHinduism, hence the name Vedanta for the teaching of sacred works; see Aranyaka, Brahmin,hiraṇyagarbhaहिरण्यगर्भHiranyagarbha ("Golden Germ"): the mythical founder of yoga; the first cosmological principle (tattva) to arise from infinite reality; also as BrahmaHiranyagarbha ("Golden Germ"): the mythical founder of yoga; the first cosmological principle (tattva) to emerge out of the infinite reality; also called Brahmaiḍā nāḍiइडा नाडिIda-Nadi ("pale lead"): the prana or arc current ascending to the left of the central channel (Sushumna nadi) is associated with the parasympathetic nervous system and has a cooling or calming effect on the mind when activated; see Pingala nadi-Ida-nadi ("pale conduit"): the prana current or arc ascending on the left side of the central channel (sushumna nadi) associated with the parasympathetic nervous system and having a cooling or calming effect on the mind when activated; cf. pingala-nadiīśvaraईश्वरIshvara ("ruler"): the Lord; Reference either to the Creator (see Brahma) or in Patanjali Yoga-darshana, to a particular transcendental self (Purusha)Ishvara ("ruler"): the Lord; referring either to the Creator (see Brahma) or, in Patanjali's yoga-darshana, to a special transcendental Self (purusha)īśvara praṇidhānaईश्वर प्रणिधानIshvara-pranidhana ("devotion to the Lord"): in Patanjali eight-limbed yoga, one of the practices of self-restraint (niyama); see also Bhakti YogaIshvara-pranidhana ("dedication to the Lord"): in Patanjali's eight-limbed yoga one of the practices of self-restraint (niyama); see also bhakti yogajainaजैनJaina (sometimes Jain), belonging to the Jinas ("conquerors"), the liberated followers of Jainism; member ofJaina (sometimes Jain): pertaining to the jinas ("conquerors"), the liberated adepts of Jainism; a member of Jainism, the spiritual tradition founded by Vardhamana Mahavira, a contemporary of Gautama the BuddhajainismJainism, the spiritual tradition founded by Vardhamana Mahavira, a contemporary of Gautama BuddhayeahजपJapa ("mumbled"): the recitation of mantrasJapa ("mothering"): the recitation of mantrasjīvātmanजीवात्मन्Jiva-Atman, jivatman ("individual self"): the individualized consciousness, as opposed to the ultimate self (parama-Atman)Jiva-atman, jivatman ("individual self"): the individuated consciousness, as opposed to the ultimate self (parama-atman)jīvanmuktiजीवन्मुक्तिJivan-mukti ("living liberation"): the state of liberation while embodied; see videha-muktiJivan-mukti ("living liberation"): the state of liberation while being embodied; cf. videha-muktijīvanmuktaजीवन्मुक्तJivanmukta ("He who is liberated while alive"): an adept who, although still embodied, has achievedJivan-mukta ("he who is liberated while alive"): an adept who, while still embodied, has attained liberation (moksha)jñānaज्ञानJnana ("knowledge / wisdom"): both worldly knowledge and world-wisdom transcended, depending on the context; see also prajna; see avidyaJnana ("knowledge / wisdom"): both worldly knowledge or world-transcending wisdom, depending on the context; see also prajna; cf. avidyajñāna yogaज्ञान योगJnana Yoga ("Yoga of Wisdom"): the path to liberation is based on wisdom, or the direct contemplation of the transcendental self (Atman) through the even application of the distinction between the real and the unreal and the renunciation of what identified as unreal (or irrelevant to achieving liberation)Jnana-Yoga ("Yoga of wisdom"): the path to liberation based on wisdom, or the direct intuition of the transcendental Self (atman) through the steady application of discernment between the Real and the unreal and renunciation of what has been identified as unreal (or inconsequential to the achievement of liberation)kaivalyaकैवल्यKaivalya ("isolation"): the state of absolute freedom from conditioned existence, declared as inashta-anga-yoga; in the non-dualistic (advaita) traditions of India, this is usually called moksha ormukti (meaning "release" from the fetters of ignorance, or avidya)Kaivalya ("isolation"): the state of absolute freedom from conditioned existence, as explained inashta-anga-yoga; in the nondualistic (advaita) traditions of India, this is usually called moksha ormukti (meaning "release" from the fetters of ignorance, or avidya)kali yugaकलियुगKali-Yuga: the dark age of spiritual and moral decline that is current now; kali does not refer to the goddess Kali, but to the loser roll of a dieKali-yuga: the dark age of spiritual and moral decline, said to be current now; kali does not refer to the Goddess Kali but to the losing throw of a diekālīकालीKali: a goddess embodies the hard (dissolution) aspect of the divineKali: a Goddess embodying the fierce (dissolving) aspect of the DivinekāmaकामKama ("wish"): the appetite for sensual pleasure blocking the way to true happiness (ananda); the only desire conducive to freedom is the impulse to liberation, called mumukshutvaKama ("desire"): the appetite for sensual pleasure blocking the path to true bliss (ananda); the only desire conducive to freedom is the impulse toward liberation, called mumukshutvakanphataकनफटाKanphata ("split ear") supposedly founded by Goraksha SchoolkapilaकपिलKapila ("He who is red"): a great sage, the quasi-mythical founder of the Samkhya tradition, who is said to have composed the Samkhya Sutra (which, however, appears to be of a much later date)Kapila ("He who is red"): a great sage, the quasi-mythical founder of the Samkhya tradition, who is said to have composed the Samkhya Sutra (which, however, appears from a much later date Point in time)karmaकर्मKarma Yoga ("Yoga of Action"): the liberating path of self-overcoming actionKarma Yoga ("Yoga of action"): the liberating path of self-transcending actionkarmanकर्मन्Karman, Karma ("action"): activity of any kind, including ritual acts; in other words, only as long as engaging in a self-centered manner; the "karmic" consequence of one's own actions; fateKarman, karma ("action"): activity of any kind, including ritual acts; said to be binding only so long as engaged in a self-centered way; the "karmic" consequence of one's actions; destinykaruṇāकरुणाKaruna ("pity"): universal sympathy; in Buddhist yoga the complement of wisdom (Prajna)Karuna ("compassion"): universal sympathy; in Buddhist yoga the complement of wisdom (prajna)khecarīखेचरीKhecari Mudra ("space-walking seal"): the tantra practice of curling the tongue back against the upper palate in order to seal the life energy (prana); see also mudraKhecari mudra ("space-walking seal"): the Tantric practice of curling the tongue back against the upper palate in order to seal the life energy (prana); see also mudrakośaकोशKosha ("housing"): one of the five "envelopes" around the transcendent self (Atman) and thus blocks its light: anna-maya-kosha ("envelope made of food", the physical body rper), prana-Kosha ("casing"): any one of five "envelopes" surrounding the transcendental Self (atman) and thus blocking its light: anna-maya-kosha ("envelope made of food," the physical body), prana-maya-kosha ("envelope made of life force"), mano-maya-kosha ("envelope made of mind"), vijnana-maya-kosha ("envelope made of consciousness"), and ananda-maya-kosha ("envelope made of bliss "); some older traditions regard the last kosha as identical with the self (atman)kṛṣṇaकृष्णKrishna ("Puller"): an incarnation of the god Vishnu, the god-man, whose teachings are found in the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata-Purana / p>Krishna ("Puller"): an incarnation of God Vishnu, the God-man whose teachings can be found in the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata-Purana / p>kumbhakaकुम्भकKumbhaka ("potlike"): breath retention; cf. puraka, recakaKumbhaka ("pot-like"): holding your breath; see Puraka, recakakuṇḍalinī कुण्डलिनीKundalini-Shakti ("coiled power"): According to Tantra Yoga and Hatha Yoga, the serpentine power or spiritual energy that exists in the form of potential at the lowest psycho-energetic center of the body (ie the mel-adhara-cakra) and which must be awakened and led to the center at the crown (ie the sahasrara chakra) for full enlightenment to occurKundalini-shakti ("coiled power"): according to Tantra and hatha yoga, the serpent power or spiritual energy, which exists in potential form at the lowest psycho-energetic center of the body (ie, the mula-adhara-cakra) and which must be awakened and guided to the center at the crown (ie, the sahasrara-cakra) for full enlightenment to occurśaktiशक्तिKundalini Yoga: The yoga path focuses on the Kundalini process as a means of liberationKundalini Yoga: the yogic path focusing on the Kundalini process as a means of liberationlayaलयLaya Yoga ("Yoga of Dissolution"): an advanced form or process of Tantric Yoga that connects the energies with the various psycho-energetic centers (chakra) of the subtle bodies, gradually through ascension released from the serpentine power (Kundalini Shakti)Laya Yoga ("Yoga of dissolution"): an advanced form or process of Tantric yoga by which the energies associated with the various psycho-energetic centers (cakra) of the subtle body are gradually dissolved through the ascent of the serpent power (kundalini- shakti)liṅgaलिङ्गLinga ("mark"): The phallus as a principle of creativity; a symbol of the god Shiva; see YoniLinga ("mark"): the phallus as a principle of creativity; a symbol of God Shiva; cf. yonimahābhārataमहाभारतम्Mahabharata ("Great Bharata"): one of India's two great ancient epics telling of the great war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas and serving as a repository for many spiritual and moral teachingsMahabharata ("Great Bharata"): one of India's two great ancient epics telling of the great war between the Pandavas and Kauravas and serving as a repository for the many spiritual and moral teachingsmahātmāमहात्माMahatma (from maha-Atman "great self"): an honorary title (something like a "great soul") bestowed on particularly deserving persons, such as GandhiMahatma (from maha-atman, "great self"): an honorific title (meaning something like "a great soul") bestowed on particularly meritorious individuals, such as GandhimaithunaमैथुनMaithuna ("twinning"): the Tantric sexual ritual in which the participants view each other as Shiva and Shakti respectivelyMaithuna ("Twinning"): the sexual tantric ritual in which the participants see each other as Shiva and Shakti ormanasमनस्Manas ("mind"): the lower mind that is bound to the senses and provides information (Vijnana) as wisdom (Jnana, Vidya); see BuddhiManas ("mind"): the lower mind, which is bound to the senses and yields information (vijnana) rather than wisdom (jnana, vidya); cf. buddhimaṇḍalaमण्डलMandala ("circle"): a circular design symbolizes the cosmos and specifically for a deityMandala ("circle"): a circular design symbolizing the cosmos and specific to a deitymantraमन्त्रMantra (from the verbal root man "think"): a sacred sound or phrase, such as OM, buzz, or OMMantra (from the verbal root man "to think"): a sacred sound or phrase, such as om, hum, or om namah shivaya, that has a transformative effect on the mind of the individual reciting it; to be ultimately effective, a mantra needs to be given in an initiatory context (diksha)mantra yogaमन्त्र योगMantra Yoga: Yoga path the use of mantras as the primary means of liberationMantra Yoga: the yogic path utilizing mantras as the primary means of liberationmarmanमर्मन्Marman ("fatal [place]"): In Ayurveda and Yoga, an important point on the body where energy is constricted or blocked; see granthiMarman ("lethal [spot]"): in Ayurveda and yoga, a vital spot on the physical body where energy is concentrated or blocked; cf. granthimatsyendraमत्स्येन्द्रMatsyendra ("Lord of Fish"): an early tantric master who founded the Yogini-Kaula School and is remembered as a teacher for GorakshaMatsyendra ("Lord of Fish"): an early Tantric master who founded the Yogini-Kaula school and is remembered as a teacher of GorakshaMayaमायाMaya ("she who measures"): the deceptive or illusory power of the world; Illusion by which the world is seen as separate from the ultimate unique reality (Atman)Maya ("she who measures"): the deluding or illusive power of the world; illusion by which the world is seen as separate from the ultimate singular Reality (atman)manomayakośaमनोमयकोशmano-maya-kosha ("shell made of the mind")mayakośaमयकोशmaya-kosha ("shell of consciousness made") and ananda-maya-kosha ("shell of happiness made"); some older traditions consider the last kosha to be identical to the self (atman)mokṣaमोक्षMoksha ("release"): the state of freedom from ignorance (avidya) and the binding effect ofkarma; also called mukti, kaivalyaMoksha ("release"): the condition of freedom from ignorance (avidya) and the binding effect of karma; also called mukti, kaivalyamudrāमुद्राMudra ("seal"): a hand gesture (like cin-mudra) or whole-body gesture (like viparita-karani-mudra); also a term used for the female partner in the tantric sexual ritualMudra ("seal"): a hand gesture (such as cin-mudra) or whole-body gesture (such as viparita-karani-mudra); also a designation of the feminine partner in the Tantric sexual ritualmuniमुनिMuni ("who is silent"): a sageMuni ("he who is silent"): a sagenadaनदNada ("sound"): the inner sound as it is heard through the practice of Nada Yoga or Kundalini YogaNada ("sound"): the inner sound, as it can be heard through the practice of nada yoga or kundalini yoganada yogaनद योगNada-Yoga ("Yoga of the [inner] sound"): the yoga or process of making and listening to the inner sound as a means of concentration and ecstatic self-transcendenceNada-Yoga ("Yoga of the [inner] sound"): the yoga or process of producing and intently listening to the inner sound as a means of concentration and ecstatic self-transcendencenāḍiनाडिNadi ("Conduit"): one of 72,000 or more subtle channels along or through which the life force (Prana) circulates, the three most important of which are ida-nadi, pingala-nadi, andsushumna-nadiNadi ("conduit"): one of 72,000 or more subtle channels along or through which the life force (prana) circulates, of which the three most important ones are the ida-nadi, pingala-nadi, andsushumna-nadināḍi śodhanaनाडि शोधनNadi-shodhana ("channel cleaning"): the practice of cleaning the pipes, especially by means of breath control (pranayama)Nadi-shodhana ("channel cleansing"): the practice of purifying the conduits, especially by means of breath control (pranayama)Namaḥ Śivāyaनमः शिवायNamah Shivaya, which has a transformative effect on the mind of the individual reciting; To be ultimately effective, a mantra must be given in an initiation context (diksha)NaradaनारदNarada: a great sage associated with the music that bhakti yoga taught and is attributed with the authorship of one of two bhakti sutrasNarada: a great sage associated with music, who taught bhakti yoga and is attributed with the authorship of one of two Bhakti sutrasnāthaनाथNatha ("Lord"): Name of many North Indian masters of yoga, especially adepts of theNatha ("lord"): appellation of many North Indian masters of yoga, in particular adepts of the Kanphata ("Split-ear") school allegedly founded by Gorakshanetī netīनेती नेतीNeti-neti ("not so, not so"): an Upanishad expression means to convey that ultimate reality is neither this nor that which is is beyond descriptionNeti-neti ("not thus, not thus"): an Upanishadic expression meant to convey that the ultimate reality is neither this nor that, that is, is beyond all descriptionnirodhaनिरोधNirodha ("limitation"): in Patanjali eight limb yoga, the basis of the process of concentration, meditation and ecstasy; in the first instance, the restriction of the "vortex of the mind" (citta-vritti)Nirodha ("restriction"): in Patanjali's eight-limbed yoga, the very basis of the process of concentration, meditation, and ecstasy; in the first instance, the restriction of the "whirls of the mind" (citta-vritti)niyamaनियमNiyama ("[self-] restraint"): the second part of the Patanjali eightfold path, which consists of purity (saucha), contentment (samtosha), rigor (tapas), study (svadhyaya) and devotion to the Lord (ishvara- consists pranidhana)Niyama ("[self-] restraint"): the second limb of Patanjali's eightfold path, which consists of purity (saucha), contentment (samtosha), austerity (tapas), study (svadhyaya), and dedication to the Lord (ishvara- pranidhana)nyāsaन्यासNyasa ("placement"): the tantra practice of infusing different body parts with life force (prana) by touching or thinking of the respective physical areaNyasa ("placing"): the Tantric practice of infusing various body parts with life force (prana) by touching or thinking of the respective physical areaoyasओजस्Ojas ("vitality"): who generates subtle energy through practice, especially the discipline of chastity (Brahmacharya)Ojas ("vitality"): the subtle energy produced through practice, especially the discipline of chastity (brahmacharya)Om (Aum)ॐOm: the original mantra symbolizes the ultimate reality, which precedes many mantric utterancesOm: the original mantra symbolizing the ultimate reality, which is prefixed to many mantric utterancesparamaपरमParama-Atman or paramatman ("highest self"): the transcendental self, which is singular, in contrast to the individualized self (Jiva-Atman), which exists in infinite quantity in the form of living beingsParama-atman or paramatman ("supreme self"): the transcendental self, which is singular, as opposed to the individuated self (jiva-atman) that exists in countless numbers in the form of living beingsparamahaṃsaपरमहंसParama-Hamsa, paramahansa ("supreme swan"): an honorary title given to great masters like Ramakrishna and YoganandaParama-hamsa, paramahansa ("supreme swan"): an honorific title given to great adepts, such as Ramakrishna and Yoganandapātañjaliपातञ्जलिPatanjali eigthfold path that results from conscious inhalation (Puraka) retention (kumbhaka) and exhalation (recaka); in an advanced state, breath-holding occurs spontaneously for long periods of timepātañjali yogasūtraपातञ्जलि योगसूत्रPatanjali Yoga Sutra or Vasugupta of the Shiva Sutrapātañjaliपातञ्जलिPatanjali: Writer of the Yoga Sutra who lived c. 150 C.E.Patanjali: compiler of the Yoga Sutra, who lived c. 150 C.E.piṅgala nāḍiपिङ्गल नाडिPingala-Nadi ("reddish conduction"): the prana or arc current ascending to the right of the central channel (Sushumna-Nadi) and the sympathetic nervous system and a stimulating effect on the mind, when activated, are connected; see ida-nadiPingala-nadi ("reddish conduit"): the prana current or arc ascending on the right side of the central channel (sushumna-nadi) and associated with the sympathetic nervous system and having an energizing effect on the mind when activated; cf. ida-nadiprajñāप्रज्ञाPrajna ("wisdom"): the opposite of spiritual ignorance (ajnana, avidya); one of two means of liberation in Buddhist yoga, the other being a skillful means (upaya), i.e., compassion (karuna)Prajna ("wisdom"): the opposite of spiritual ignorance (ajnana, avidya); one of two means of liberation in Buddhist yoga, the other being skillful means (upaya), i.e., compassion (karuna)prakṛtiप्रकृतिPrakriti ("creator"): nature, which is multi-level, and according to Patanjali Yoga-darshana, consists of an eternal dimension (called pradhana or "foundation"), levels of subtle existence (called sukshma-parvan), and the physical or gross realm (called sthula-parvan); all of nature is considered unconscious (ACIT) and therefore it is viewed as against the transcendental self or mind (Purusha)Prakriti ("creatrix"): nature, which is multilevel and, according to Patanjali's yoga-darshana, consists of an eternal dimension (called pradhana or "foundation"), levels of subtle existence (called sukshma-parvan), and the physical or coarse realm (called sthula-parvan); all of nature is deemed unconscious (acit), and therefore it is viewed as being in opposition to the transcendental Self or Spirit (purusha)prakṛti layaप्रकृति लयPrakriti-Laya ("merging in nature"): a high-level state of existence that falls briefly from actual liberation (kaivalya); the being that has reached this state,Prakriti-laya ("merging into Nature"): a high-level state of existence that falls short of actual liberation (kaivalya); the being who has attained that stateprāṇaप्राणPrana ("life / breath"): life in general; the vital force, the maintenance of the body; the breath as an external manifestation of the subtle life forcePrana ("life / breath"): life in general; the life force sustaining the body; the breath as an external manifestation of the subtle life forceprāṇāyāmaप्राणायामPranayama (from Prana and ayama, "life / breath extension"): breath control, the fourth part (anga) of thePranayama (from prana and ayama, "life / breath extension"): breath control, the fourth limb (anga) of Patanjali's eigthfold path, consisting of conscious inhalation (puraka) retention (kumbhaka) and exhalation (recaka); at an advanced state, breath retention occurs spontaneously for longer periods of timeprasādaप्रसादPrasada ("grace / clarity"): the divine grace; mental clarityPrasada ("grace / clarity"): divine grace; mental claritypratyāhāraप्रत्याहारPratyahara ("withdrawal"): inhibition of the senses, the fifth part (anga) of the Patanjali eightfold pathPratyahara ("withdrawal"): sensory inhibition, the fifth limb (anga) of Patanjali's eightfold pathpujaपूजाPuja ("adoration"): cultic worship which is an important aspect of many forms of yoga, in particularPuja ("worship"): ritual worship, which is an important aspect of many forms of yoga, notably bhakti yoga and TantrapūrakaपूरकPuraka ("filling in"): inhalation, an aspect of breath control (pranayama)Puraka ("filling in"): inhalation, an aspect of breath control (pranayama)purāṇaपुराणPurana ("Ancient [history]"): a type of popular encyclopedia dealing with royal genealogy, cosmology, philosophy and ritual; there are eighteen large and many other smaller works of this kindPurana ("Ancient [History]"): a type of popular encyclopedia dealing with royal genealogy, cosmology, philosophy, and ritual; there are eighteen major and many more minor works of this naturepuruṣaपुरुषPurusha ("male"): the transcendental self (Atman) or mind, a term used primarily inPurusha ("male"): the transcendental Self (atman) or Spirit, a designation that is mostly used in Samkhya and Patanjali's yoga-darshanarādhāराधाRadha: the God-Man Krishna's spouse; a name, the divine motherRadha: the God-man Krishna's spouse; a name of the divine motherrājayogaराजयोगRaja-Yoga ("Royal Yoga"): a late medieval name of the Patanjali Yoga-darshana eightfold, also known as Classical YogaRaja-Yoga ("Royal Yoga"): a late medieval designation of Patanjali's eightfold yoga-darshana, also known as classical yogaramaRama; see MahabharataramaरामRama: an incarnation of the god Vishnu prominent Krishna; the main hero of the RamayanaRama: an incarnation of God Vishnu preceding Krishna; the principal hero of the RamayanaramayanaरामायणRamayana ("Life of Ramas"): one of India's two great national epics tells the story ofRamayana ("Rama's life"): one of India's two great national epics telling the story of Rama; cf. MahabharatarecakaरेचकRecaka ("expulsion"): exhalation, an aspect of breath control (pranayama)Recaka ("expulsion"): breathing out, an aspect of breath control (pranayama)ṛgvedaऋग्वेदRig-Veda; see VedaRig-Veda; see VedaṛṣiऋषिRishi ("seer"): a category of Vedic sage; an honorary title from a certain revered master, such as the South Indian sage Ramana, known as maharshi (from maha means "big" and rishi); see muniRishi ("seer"): a category of Vedic sage; an honorific title of certain venerated masters, such as the South Indian sage Ramana, who is known as maharshi (from maha meaning "great" and rishi); cf. munisādhanaसाधनSadhana ("fulfillment"): spiritual discipline leading to ("perfection" or "achievement") siddhi; the term is used specifically in tantraSadhana ("accomplishing"): spiritual discipline leading to siddhi ("perfection" or "accomplishment"); the term is specifically used in TantrasahajaसहजSahaja ("born together"): a medieval term for the fact that the transcendental reality and the empirical reality are not really separate, but rather exist side by side, or the latter being an aspect or misjudgment of the former; often made as "spontaneous" or "spontaneity"; The Sahaja state is the natural state, that is, enlightenment or realizationSahaja ("together born"): a medieval term denoting the fact that the transcendental Reality and the empirical reality are not truly separate but coexist, or with the latter being an aspect or misperception of the former; often rendered as "spontaneous" or "spontaneity"; the sahaja state is the natural condition, that is, enlightenment or realizationsamādhiसमाधिSamadhi ("compilation"): the ecstatic or unitive state in which the meditator becomes one with the object of meditation, the eighth and final link (anga) of the Patanjali eightfold path; there are many types of samadhi, the main distinction between samprajnata (conscious) andasamprajnata (supraconscious) ecstasy; only the latter leads to the dissolution of the karmic factors deep in the mind; Across both types of ecstasy is enlightenment, which is also sometimes called sahaja samadhi-or the state of "natural" or "spontaneous" ecstasy where there is perfect continuity of the unconscious throughout waking, dreaming and sleepingSamadhi ("putting together"): the ecstatic or unitive state in which the meditator becomes one with the object of meditation, the eighth and final limb (anga) of Patanjali's eightfold path; there are many types of samadhi, the most significant distinction being between samprajnata (conscious) andasamprajnata (supraconscious) ecstasy; only the latter leads to the dissolution of the karmic factors deep within the mind; beyond both types of ecstasy is enlightenment, which is also sometimes called sahaja-samadhi or the condition of "natural" or "spontaneous" ecstasy, where there is perfect continuity of superconscious throughout waking, dreaming, and sleepingsamatvaसमत्वSamatva or Samata ("flatness"): the mental state of harmony, balanceSamatva or samata ("evenness"): the mental condition of harmony, balancesāṃkhyaसांख्यSamkhya ("Number"): one of the most important traditions of Hinduism, which deals with the classification of the principles (Tattva) of existence and their correct insight in order to distinguish between mind (Purusha) and the various aspects of nature (Prakriti is) ; This system of influence emerged from the ancient (pre-Buddhist) Samkhya yoga tradition and was codified in theSamkhya Karika by Ishvara Krishna (approx. 350 AD)Samkhya ("Number"): one of the main traditions of Hinduism, which is concerned with the classification of the principles (tattva) of existence and their proper discernment in order to distinguish between Spirit (purusha) and the various aspects of Nature (prakriti ); this influential system grew out of the ancient (pre-Buddhist) Samkhya-Yoga tradition and was codified in theSamkhya-Karika of Ishvara Krishna (c. 350 C.E.)sanyāsaसन्यासSamnyasa ("laying off"): the state of renunciation, which is the fourth and final phase of life (see Ashrama) and consists in an inner turning primarily away from what understands finite and secondarily in an external letting go of finite to be is things; see vairagyaSamnyasa ("casting off"): the state of renunciation, which is the fourth and final stage of life (see ashrama) and consisting primarily in an inner turning away from what is understood to be finite and secondarily in an external letting go of finite things; cf. vairagyasaṃnyāsinसंन्यासिन्Samnyasin ("he who has cast off"): a renouncerSamnyasin ("who threw off"): a waiversamprajñātasamādhiसम्प्रज्ञातसमाधिSamprajnata samadhi; see samadhiSamprajnata samadhi; see samadhisaṃsāraसंसारSamsara ("confluence"): the finite world of change, as opposed to ultimate reality (brahman ornirvana)Samsara ("confluence"): the finite world of change, as opposed to the ultimate Reality (brahman ornirvana)saṃskāraसंस्कारSamskara ("activator"): the subconscious impression leaving any act of will, which in turn leads to renewed psycho-mental activity; the innumerable samskaras hidden in the depths of the soul are ultimately only eliminated in asamprajnata samadhi (see samadhi)Samskara ("activator"): the subconscious impression left behind by each act of volition, which, in turn, leads to renewed psychomental activity; the countless samskaras hidden in the depth of the mind are ultimately eliminated only in asamprajnata-samadhi (see samadhi)saṃyamaसंयमSamyama ("compulsion"): the one resulting from the practice of concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and ecstasy (samadhi) in relation to the same objectSamyama ("constraint"): the combined practice of concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and ecstasy (samadhi) in regard to the same objectsatसत्Sat ("Being / Reality / Truth"): the ultimate Reality (Atman or Brahman)Sat ("being / reality / truth"): the ultimate Reality (atman or brahman)satsaṅgaसत्सङ्गSat-sanga ("true company / society of truth"): the practice of frequenting the good society of saints, sages, self-realized adepts, and their students, in whose company the ultimate reality can be felt more tangiblySat-sanga ("true company / company of Truth"): the practice of frequenting the good company of saints, sages, self-realized adepts, and their disciples, in whose company the ultimate Reality can be felt more palpablysatyaसत्यSatya ("Truth / Truthfulness"): Truth, a term for ultimate reality; also the practice of truthfulness, which is an aspect of moral discipline (yama)Satya ("truth / truthfulness"): truth, a designation of the ultimate reality; also the practice of truthfulness, which is an aspect of moral discipline (yama)śaktiशक्तिShakti ("power"): the ultimate reality in its feminine aspect, or the power pole of the divine; see also Kundalini-ShaktiShakti ("power"): the ultimate Reality in its feminine aspect, or the power pole of the Divine; see also kundalini-shaktiśaktipātaशक्तिपातShakti-pata ("Descent of Power"): The process of initiation, or spiritual baptism, through the benign transmission of an advanced or even enlightened adept (Siddha), which the shaktiwithin a student, thereby initiating or improving the process awakens the liberationShakti-pata ("descent of power"): the process of initiation, or spiritual baptism, by means of the benign transmission of an advanced or even enlightened adept (siddha), which awakens the shaktiwithin a disciple, thereby initiating or enhancing the process of liberationśankaraशंकरShankara ("He who is benevolent"): the eighth century master who was the greatest proponent of non-dualism (Advaita Vedanta), and whose philosophical school was arguably for the decline of Buddhism in India responsibleShankara ("He who is benevolent"): the eighth-century adept who was the greatest proponent of nondualism (Advaita Vedanta) and whose philosophical school was probably responsible for the decline of Buddhism in Indiaśiṣyaशिष्यShishya ("student"): the initiated student of a guruShishya ("student / disciple"): the initiated disciple of a guruśivaशिवShiva ("He who is benign"): the divine; a deity that has served yogis as an archetypal model over the centuriesShiva ("He who is benign"): the Divine; a deity that has served yogins as an archetypal model throughout the agesśiva sūtraशिव सूत्रShiva Sutra ("Shiva's Aphorisms"): like the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, a classic work on yoga, as inShiva Sutra ("Shiva's Aphorisms"): like the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, a classical work on yoga, as taught in the Shaivism of Kashmir; authored by Vasugupta (ninth century C.E.)Shaivism taught by Kashmir; by Vasugupta author (ninth century C.E.)śodhanaशोधनShodhana ("purification / purification"): an essential aspect of all yoga paths; a category of purification practices in hatha yogaShodhana ("cleansing / purification"): a fundamental aspect of all yogic paths; a category of purification practices in hatha yogaśraddhāश्रद्धाShraddha ("belief"): an essential disposition on the yoga path that must be distinguished from mere beliefShraddha ("faith"): an essential disposition on the yogic path, which must be distinguished from mere beliefśuddhiशुद्धिShuddhi ("purification / purity"): the state of purity; a synonym for shodhanaShuddhi ("purification / purity"): the state of purity; a synonym of shodhanasiddhaषिद्धSiddha ("achievement"): an adept, often of tantra; when fully self-realized, the term maha-siddha or "great master" is often usedSiddha ("accomplished"): an adept, often of Tantra; if fully self-realized, the designation maha-siddha or "great adept" is often usedsiddha yogaषिद्ध योगSiddha-Yoga ("Yoga of the Adepts"): a term applied in particular to the yoga of Kashmir Shaivism, as taught by Swami Muktananda (of the twentieth century)Siddha-Yoga ("Yoga of the adepts"): a designation applied especially to the yoga of Kashmiri Shaivism, as taught by Swami Muktananda (twentieth century)siddhiषिद्धिSiddhi ("achievement / perfection"): spiritual perfection, the achievement of flawless identity with ultimate reality (Atman or Brahman); paranormal ability, of which the yoga tradition knows many typesSiddhi ("accomplishment / perfection"): spiritual perfection, the attainment of flawless identity with the ultimate reality (atman or brahman); paranormal ability, of which the yoga tradition knows many kindsspandaस्पन्दSpanda ("vibrations"): a key concept of Kashmir Shaivism, according to which the ultimate reality itself is "quiver," that (as conceived in Advaita Vedanta) is inherently creative and not staticSpanda ("vibration"): a key concept of Kashmir's Shaivism according to which the ultimate Reality itself "quivers," that is, is inherently creative rather than static (as conceived in Advaita Vedanta)suṣumṇā nāḍiसुषुम्णा नाडिSushumna-Nadi ("very gracious channel"): the central prana or arc current in or along which the serpentine force (Kundalini-Shakti) has to go to the psycho-center (chakra) at the crown of the head in order to ascend to attain liberation (Moksha )Sushumna-nadi ("very gracious channel"): the central prana current or arc in or along which the serpent power (kundalini-shakti) must ascend toward the psychoenergetic center (cakra) at the crown of the head in order to attain liberation ( moksha)sūtraसूत्रSutra ("thread"): an aphoristic statement; a work consisting of aphoristic statements such asSutra ("thread"): an aphoristic statement; a work consisting of aphoristic statements, such as Patanjali's Yoga Sutra or Vasugupta's Shiva-Sutrasvādhyāyaस्वाध्यायSvadhyaya ("your own go in"): study an important aspect of the yoga path, under the practices of self-restraint (niyama) noted in> Patanjali Yoga eightfold; the recitation of mantras (see alsojapa)Svadhyaya ("one's own going into"): study, an important aspect of the yogic path, listed among the practices of self-restraint (niyama) in> Patanjali's eightfold yoga; the recitation of mantras (see alsojapa)tantraतन्त्रTantra ("Loom"): a type of Sanskrit work, tantric teachings; the tradition of tantrism which focused on the side of the Shakti spiritual life and originating in the early post-Christian era and achieved its classical functions around 1000 CE; Tantrism has a "right" (dakshina) or conservative and a "left" (vama) or unconventional / antinomistic branch, with this use including sexual ritualsTantra ("Loom"): a type of Sanskrit work containing Tantric teachings; the tradition of Tantrism, which focuses on the shakti side of spiritual life and which originated in the early post-Christian era and achieved its classical features around 1000 C.E .; Tantrism has a "right-hand" (dakshina) or conservative and a "left-hand" (vama) or unconventional / antinomian branch, with the latter utilizing, among other things, sexual ritualstapasतपसTapas ("glow / warmth"): austerity, penance, which is a component of all yoga approaches, as they all involve self-transcendenceTapas ("glow / heat"): austerity, penance, which is an ingredient of all yogic approaches, since they all involve self-transcendencetattvaतत्त्वTattva ("thatness"): a fact or reality; a certain category of existence like the ahamkara,Tattva ("thatness"): a fact or reality; a particular category of existence such as the ahamkara, buddhi, manas; the ultimate Reality (see also atman, brahman)turiyaतुरीयTuriya ("fourth"), also as cathurtha: the transcendental reality that transcends the three conventional states of consciousness, namely waking, sleeping and dreamingTuriya ("fourth"), also called cathurtha: the transcendental Reality, which exceeds the three conventional states of consciousness, namely waking, sleeping, and dreamingupaniṣatउपनिषत्Upanishad ("to sit near"): a type of writing that made up the final part of the literature, desUpanishad ("sitting near"): a type of scripture representing the concluding portion of the revealed literature of Hinduism, hence the designation Vedanta for the teachings of these sacred works; cf.Aranyaka, Brahmana, VedaupāyaउपायUpaya ("help"): in Buddhist yoga, the practice of compassion (karuna); see prajnaUpaya ("means"): in Buddhist yoga, the practice of compassion (karuna); cf. prajnavairāgyaवैराग्यVairagya ("dispassion"): the attitude of the inner ernVairagya ("dispassion"): the attitude of inner ren