Why does romantic rejection cause trouble?

The age of romanticism. A brief overview

structure

1. Definition

2. time

3. Origin

4. Term

5th symbol

6. Historical situation

7. Philosophy and attitude to life

8. Art and culture

9. Romantic poetry and design elements

10. Stages of romance

11. Aftermath

12. Comparison with classical music

13. Thesis paper

definition

intellectual, artistic, especially literary current that permeated all areas of life encompassed all arts, science, philosophy and politics

was a pan-European phenomenon of different national characteristics (especially France, England and Italy) with Germany as the center replaced Enlightenment and classicism as an opposition movement against rationalism Romantics had no clear definition abstract designation was associated with descriptions of feelings such as exaggerated, rampant, fantastic, wonderful, unreal and untrue one also understood the irrational, the supersensible, everything dissolving, everything wonderful and mysterious term but also means the return to the values ​​of one's own people as opposed to the cosmopolitan realism of the Enlightenment and the classical period

time

Movement existed across Europe from 1793-1850

in Germany it was predominant from 1793 to 1830

origin

The roots lie in the "Sturm und Drang",

Forerunners of romanticism were therefore

emotional literature (J.-J. Rousseau)

popular literature (Bürger; Göttinger Hain) the new natural poetry (A. von Haller, Klopstock)

an aesthetic of the ingenious subject (Shaftesbury, especially the Sturm und Drang)

the theoretical liberation from classicistic compulsory regulation (Diderot, Lessing), the rediscovery of Germanic medieval literature (Warton, Percy)

term

Latin word "romanz", which means something like "in the vernacular"

17th and 18th century negative shift in meaning towards the “unreal” and “exaggerated sentimental” Jean-Jacques Rousseau introduced the term “romantic” as a description of certain mental states

In 1770 it became common to equate romantic with Romanesque

Early Romanticism: Friedrich Schlegel and Novalis equated the romantic with modern poetry and the poetic

Nowadays the term, as far as it is not clearly related to the epoch, is extended relatively diffusely to everything sentimental and fairytale-fantastic

Symbol of romance

Blue flower

Novalis: Heinrich von Ofterdingen presents the blue flower of love. She is in the middle of others

Flowers and is the only one that is light blue. A delicate face hovers in her - this face is love. When you find the flower, you also find love representing something that is difficult to achieve, a longing that cannot be expressed and that cannot be rationally understood

Political situation

Germany consisted of over 300 individual states (important Prussia, Austria; Bavaria; Saxony) princes ruled according to the principle of enlightened absolutism

in France the phases of revolution until Napoleon's accession to power (1799) and the conquest of Europe prevailed

by Napoleon in D .:

-Kaiser took off the German crown and remained Emperor of Austria
In 1807 the first revolutionary forces stirred
-1813/14 after Napoleon's defeat in Russia the Wars of Liberation broke out
-which were characterized by enormous patriotism (patriotic poetry!)
- uniform living space; Prerequisite for industrialization and increased freight traffic

1815 Congress of Vienna; Reorganization of Europe

Metternich: - Outstanding politician in Congress

-Restoration

- Sharp censorship, universities under police supervision, fraternities forbidden

Economic situation

> Transition to industrial society from 1800

Introduction of new technical devices; Steam locomotive, first German railway

Steam engine in factories; Industrial revolution

entire industrial landscapes emerged; in Central England, Belgium, Silesia and the Ruhr and Saarland

in agriculture, e.g. the threshing machines, steam plows, trucks and the idea of ​​crop rotation

Migration from country to city; Factories

Child and women's labor, inhumane working conditions, the mortality rate is very high

Machines replace manual labor; Changeover

high productivity, performance society, competitive pressure

a lot of work little free time

Money became more important

Social situation

industrial metropolitan areas (> cities: ugly, cold)

great sense of togetherness

harder existence, harder struggle for a living

Housing misery

new social classes (entrepreneurs, employees, workers)

Science / medicine

constantly growing reputation

scientific impulse all over Europe: -dt. Daniel Fahrenheit the temperature scale

-Swede Anders Celsius set the Celsius degrees

In 1774 Joseph Priestley discovered oxygen, evidence: Air consists of oxygen and nitrogen. Great importance for: The Montpellier brothers' balloon flight

Development and perfecting of the steam engine by James Watt

Inventions for everyday life: strollers, forceps and the first machine-made toothbrush

Interest in para-scientific borderline phenomena

celebrated doctors, the "magnetic cures", hypnotherapy

Philosophical foundations

Reaction to the mechanistic view of the world and of man

against rationalism, the optimism of the Enlightenment

close relationship to literature, religion, theology

Deepening pantheism

occult traits gained in importance

Thought leaders: Denis Diderot and Rousseau

Julien Offroy de la Mettrie "Man is a machine"

ohann Gottlieb Fichte (1762 - 1814)

puts the self at the center of the world. "The ego is the creator of the world. It is not things that shape the ego, but the other way around."

added Anti-Ich so that man could be absolutely free

this led to an enormous overemphasis on the human being, the glorification of individuality and subjectivity

subjective idealism (individualism) became the basic concept

Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling (1775-1854)

"Natural philosopher"

Nature has a soul that pervades everything "One is determined by everything and everything by everything."

"Nature and spirit form a unit and are of the same nature. Spirit is invisible nature, nature is visible spirit." The task of art is to make the invisible in nature visible

Thesis met the striving for unity and wholeness

Schelling's model of the connection between all of nature was carried over to all areas of life (state, society, art)

The new religion

Schlegel and Novalis first tried to develop a new religion that should be the link between all poetry, people and areas of life

Spinoza's pantheistic belief that God is to be found everywhere in the phenomena of nature was better to them than dogmatic church belief.

The task of the poets: to represent the divine spirit of the universe and to make it tangible

Schleiermacher adopted many ideas from Fichte, Schlegel and the early Romantics and for the first time called for the separation of state and church, religion and morality

everyone should seek religion, however, within Christianity as a kind of universal religion

wanted to make the church more flexible, to banish all constraints and restrictions from it

his definition of religion becomes the catchphrase "Religion is man's striving to grasp the infinite in the finite. Everything is religion."

The romantic approach to life, zeitgeist

typical romantics: -young men, often students; pronounced anti-civic attitudes

-be referred to as the 1st youth revolt in Europe> clear parallels to the hippie culture

-many romantics died young (Novalis at 29)> suicide

It is the duty of the romantic to experience life or to dream away from it new keywords: "Feeling", "Fantasy", "Experience", "Longing" Longing for:

- other worlds ("delimitation"), dream and intoxication world, belief in miracles, supernatural
- Nature
- foreign countries and cultures, far away
- childhood
- Death, afterlife, God
- past times, especially the Middle Ages (glorification)

Critique of the Romantics

criticized social norms such as punctuality, diligence, accuracy and frugality. Man became subject to the machine

Man alienates himself from himself

new mentality, brought about by technology, which urges to dominate and control nature, was rejected

the famous thesis was questioned: money makes you free

woman's role

not only beauty, grace, and domesticity were required, but also spirit and masculine energy

same education, rights and duties as the man

Bettina von Arnim or Annette von Droste-Hülshoff,

Women's emancipation was in the preparatory phase

Escape from Reality

wanted to transfigure and overcome the harsh reality and the difficult everyday life through poetry

The wonderful

did not seek their material in sober reality, but in secrets of the soul

Occupation: dark worlds of the unconscious, dreams, sleepwalking, clairvoyance, doppelganger (later depth psychology as a science)

Attention to mental illnesses, spiritism, magnetism

Ideal: not practical, active, realistic people, but the longing, wandering dreamer, whose life flows without a job and unsteady and who sees in enjoyment, not in action, the highest purpose of life

Reality becomes a dream fairy tale world

Closeness to nature

Observation of nature

but restriction to the emotional apprehension of nature Nature became a symbol of mysterious sensations

middle Ages

dark time in the heart of humanity

Chivalry and papacy were given a new spell

Combination of noble heroism and deepest piety, e.g. Knights of the Grail = highest ideal declared

Secular and spiritual poetry of the Middle Ages was awakened to new life

pious legends, poetry of the Madonna, life of friars and hermits = popular topic

All-unity

everyone must experience all-unity through dreams, fantasies, where he is absorbed by a comprehensive whole. Experience can lead to longing for death

Double movement: longing striving into infinite nature <-> immersion in one's own inner religious interpretation: as experiences of divine love or of all-embracing life

Family, state and church

so that society can become an all-unity, it must be based on a natural, organic institution that connects everyone in love: the family

State / church is sovereign ruler as the father of the people

Artist and Philistine

Artist movement (search for infinite unity) against boring, unimaginative Philistines compared to the

Believe in the existing, in useful work, competition, the pursuit of profit

from its northern wasteland, he longs for cheerful, sensual, Catholic Italy

education

The monastery becomes a symbolic place of education

Music in romance

derived: "romantic" generally means the emotional, atmospheric character of music for romantic poets, the music was of central importance

Aftermath up to the 20th century

Typical: - Emphasis on nature; Revolutionary operas include storms, avalanches, conflagrations, ship wrecks

-Topics from the immediate present

- Strengthening of personal identity, increased national self-confidence

- folk character

-Solution of fixed design types

Forms: Folksong, Singspiel, Art Song and the Opéra comique

-extended orchestra

-first ballet performances

symphonic music

House music was cultivated in every middle-class home

- The heyday of Italian opera

- French opera (answer to French Revolution)

-new genre of revolutionary opera was born

- the most important example of the revolutionary opera: Ludwig van Beethoven's opera "Fidelio"

Instrumentation: -new: oboe, clarinet, piano

-Piano and flute were the most widely used instruments

Representative: -Carl Maria von Weber; Opera "Der Freischütz" (unreal, worldly, irrational)

-Robert Schumann (climax) songs and instrumental music "Träumerei"

-Franz Schubert, song cycle "The beautiful miller"

-Franz Liszt "Hungarian Rhasopie"

-Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy "Scottish Symphony"

-Peter Tchaikovsky “Swan Lake”

-Nicolò Paganini (virtuoso) “24 caprices for violin solo”

-Frédéric Chopin "Polish Fantasy"

-Richard Wagner "The Ring of the Nibelung"

-Ludwig van Beethoven: 3rd Symphony is entitled Sinfonia Eroica "Hero Symphony"

> symphonic works = was seen as the perfection of instrumental music

Fashion in romance

Top hat; at first a public nuisance, now to equip the bourgeois gentleman

Women wore tight corsets and hoop skirts that were flat at the back and front and wide at the sides> staircases would have to be redesigned

Hair was worn by fashion-conscious women in piled-up hairstyles, adorned with ostrich feathers and ribbons, which were sometimes also decorated with model farms, ships or battle scenes, hoods made of fine, white linen, decorated with ruffles, embroidery and ribbons

Art in Romanticism

typical: effort to overcome the formal rigor and control of classicism, instead to make fantasy and individual experience of nature the central artistic statement

Architecture in Romanticism

remained stuck to a classical language of forms

mostly limited to the imitation of older styles (medieval gothic, renaissance) it was placed on the preservation of monuments

Tendency to integrate buildings harmoniously into the landscape and to create open transitions between enclosed space and nature

> That was in keeping with the new romantic feeling for nature

Painting in Romanticism

Domain of romance

Revival of the medieval treasure trove of fairy tales and legends, individual romantic experiences of nature

new forms of landscape perception

Man and landscape were intimately connected with each other

From 1760 the first painters began to deviate from the strict rules of the Classical period, preferring bizarre and extravagant heroic motifs

Use of strong contrasts between light and shadow

next Romantic movement preferred landscape painting

Light and color should evoke awe of the great outdoors

France

Beginnings: Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) heroic-revolutionary themes

large-scale battle scenes with moving crowd scenes

Further development: focus on battle painting, hero worship on the representation of the victims and suffering Example: Eugène Delacroix "The Massacre of Chios"

Germany

Nature picture as a revelation of the divine landscape painting

Caspar David Friedrich (symbolic, meditative landscapes that thematize the omnipresence of God in nature, ghostly empty, dark landscapes)

melancholy conception "The Arctic Ocean / The failed hope" shows the triumph of nature over human endeavors by means of a polar swift that is crushed by ice floes

England

romantic conception of nature, especially landscape painting

United States

main group: Hudson River School

Representative: Washington Allston (1st American landscape painter)

Thomas Cole (Hudson River School, English)> Representation of pristine forests

Late Romanticism

Middle of the 19th century: Removal of original romantic central ideas and their expression to be flattened

Romantic poetry

Features of romantic poetry

Revival of the German Middle Ages, allied rhyme

Striving for German folk goods (folk songs, fairy tales)

Inclination to open forms (fragment, improvisation)

Mixed literary forms, blurring of boundaries between literary genres, free creativity is more important than what is created

poetic way of life is more important than the literary work itself poetizing life

language

simple folklore

Foreign words were avoided

Long forgotten expressions of the Middle Ages were reintroduced into the language. Expression is often torn down and unclear

Genera

drama

not preferred expression, no public interest

not the right stage conditions; too many scene locations

Schlegel Drama on the German stage through translations of 17 dramas by Shakespeare

Turning to the historical drama

Comedy plays a big role

Poetry

Model of the folk song

Small, intimate poems with an enthusiastic character and mood poetry often became very important

Preference for uniform stanzas

popular content dominated

Novella

prefers; because of its short, narrative form

were written down from individual moods

Subject: the miraculous and the demonic

Novels / fragment

most important genus

often fragment

once the mood had evaporated, the poet turned to new impressions without finishing the first. Texts from other genres were integrated, as the romantic ability to concentrate was insufficient to cope with extensive subjects

Epic, unrealistic narrative style (indeterminacy of plot, character, place, time) fairy tale

most important genus

does not want to tell a real occurrence, but instead wants to play with the reader's imagination free of anything representational

Translations

stimulated by preoccupation with older literary models, such as Shakespeare, and by the idea of ​​cross-national literature

on a high level

Translations and revisions of the works of Homer, Virgil, Ovid and Horace

Occupation / translation with Indian, Chinese, Asian, Oriental poetry

Design elements

Universal poetry

The boundaries between the individual genres of poetry, such as lyric poetry, epic and drama, disappeared. The individual gender should be mixed; Men were not of the same nature as heroes of the Classical era. Feminine and feminine took away their radiant masculinity from men

Imagination and depth of feeling

Imagination and mind should fill the poetry with life and expand its space

Preference for foreboding moods, miracles, demonies, dreams, moonlit nights and fairy tales nothing was pronounced for clear and unambiguous

dark hints gave an inkling of what was happening

Explanations for the often completely fantastic actions were ruled out

Night was the opposite of the Enlightenment, an opposition to the mind

symbolism

important means of expression

anticipated many aspects of Sigmund Freud's dream symbolism

Romantic irony

Schlegel creates the romantic irony

> a poet creates a cheerful illusion and then deliberately destroys it - the illusion made clear

with the help of irony the boundaries between fantasy and experience, ideal and reality, reality and

Infinity abolished in which all times, levels of consciousness and literary forms come together

melted (universal idea)

humor

complete separation from classical music

very good-natured and sunny humor made works more transfigured and friendly depth of mind

1798-1804 early romanticism

Also called Universal, Jena or older Romanticism, the heyday around 1800

Centers: Berlin, Jena

Typical: - deals with nature, world soul, artistic genius

Formation of a closed spiritual community

- strong political imprint

- wanted to enforce the emancipation of women and free love

-critical-scientific examination of the classical period (turning away from ancient patterns)

- Striving for a spiritual totality

-Novels and fairy tales

Agents and plants:

Jean Paul: humorous, witty, satirical, ironic novels

Schlegel brothers (August Wilhelm and Friedrich): theorists, defined universal poetry, translated Shakespeare (standard stage version)

Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg): medieval material, dream, fantasy, fairy tale, supernatural model novel "Heinrich von Ofterdingen"

Poems with an emphasis on the unconscious / death "Hymns to the night"

Ludwig Tieck: novels, art fairy tales, ironic, drama / fairy tale parody "Puss in Boots"

enaer romance:

1. Group of the Romantics was formed in Jena in 1798 with Novalis, the Schlegel brothers, Tieck, the theologian Schleiermacher, the philosopher Fichte and von Schelling

The organ of publication was the magazine "Athenaeum"

1804-1816 High Romanticism

also called national romanticism or younger romanticism

Centers: Berlin, Heidelberg

Typical: -religious and imaginative characters

-Interest in people's history and languages

Folk songs, sagas, fairy tales were collected

-Concentration on the Holy Roman Empire

- Renewal of national self-awareness

-irrationalistic

- Editing of works from medieval and folk poetry

- No philosophical speculations and theoretical considerations

-Patriotism through Napoleonic foreign rule

Agents and plants:

Heinrich von Kleist: very incomprehensible because of the psychological depth

Novellas: "The Marquise", Dramas: "The Broken Jug"

Clemens Brentano: beautiful, musical poems and fairy tales folk song collection "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff: the most widely read romantic

Novella "From the life of a good-for-nothing"

Brothers Grimm: Collection and publication of old German texts, children's and household tales

32-volume mammoth work "The German Dictionary", grammar, important preparatory work on German studies

Achim von Arnim: "Newspaper for Hermits"

Bettina von Arnim: "Conversation with demons"

Wilhelm Hauff: historical novel "Lichtenstein", fairy tale "Das Wirtshaus im Spessart"

Heidelberg Circle:

1808/09 2. Group emerged from A. von Arnim, Brentano, von Eichendorff, Görres, Brothers Grimm

against French influences, against Enlightenment and classicism

wanted to awaken the creative powers of the German "Volksgeist"

Collections of folk songs, folk tales, folk tales and folk books

Another circle was formed in Dresden in 1808/09

Berlin romance:

1801 the center of romantic groups

Representative: Schlegel brothers, the salon of Rahel Varnhagen von Ense, von Chamisso, from 1814 Hoffmann

1816-1830 late romanticism

Also called Black Romanticism or Swabian Romanticism, the heyday: the focus was Berlin from 1815

Centers: Berlin, Swabia

Typical: -A turn to Catholicism

- Subordination to wholes such as church, religion, people and state

-Dedicated to folk song, Christian lyric poetry, the ballad style and local sagas

Agents and plants:

Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann “Gespensterhoffmann”:

Emphasis on the unconscious, the supernatural, the ambiguity of existence, the grotesque, the fantasy world

Detective novella "Das Fräulein von Scuderi", horror novel "The Elixirs of the Devil" Ludwig Uhland: "Vaterländische Gedichte":

Gustav Schwab: "German Folk Books" Heinrich Heine: "Harzreise"

Black romance / horror romance

conquers the realm of unconscious fears and desires

tends to nihilism, i.e. to lose the hold of traditional values ​​while giving in to the stimulus,

len does the horrid in the boring world of the Philistines

turns to the absurd, eerily demonic, satanic

Executioners, vampires, women murdering men (femme fatale), dwarves, gnomes and demons were among their staff

There is a tendency especially in trivial literature with its partly amoral-abnormal themes (incest)

Representatives: Ancestor Praz Marquis de Sade, Hoffmann, Lord Byron, Swinburne and Edgar Allan Poe, Gustave Flaubert, Gabriele D’Annunzio.

Biedermeier

Such as the pre-march or restoration period

Time: 1815 - 1848

shaped by: -Wiener Kongress (national disappointment)

- beginning industrialization (economic tensions)

- Uncertainty in questions of value and meaning (existential pessimism)

- Withdrawal in privacy

-new social culture

- Recourse to older literary traditions of the Enlightenment and Sensitivity

Literature: taming of passions, silent subordination to fate, harmony with a nature perceived as harmonious, satisfaction with the "little luck"

formal, stylistic characteristics: preference for smaller forms of use (shorter narrative prose such as fairy tales from novels, verse epic, poetry and idyllic poetry)

new forms of publication: literary magazines, paperbacks

Stage: fairy tale and magic pieces, family and stirring pieces, historical trivial dramas and classicistic high-class drama

Biedermeier poets: Adalbert Stifter, Eduard Mörike, Annette von Droste-Hülshoff

The romance outside of Germany

England: Byron, Shelley, John Keats (lyrics)

France: Breakthrough: Germaine de Staël "About Germany" Victor Hugo, drama "Cromwell"

>>> independent Italy: romantic poetry Giacomo di Leopardi, Alessandro Manzoni

Spain: Gustavo Alfredo Bécquer

Portugal: Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo

Russia: was French literature; Great German influence on Aleksandr Pushkin, Michail Lermontow

USA: Orientation towards English models, important authors: Washington Irving

Aftermath of romance

The aftermath on the intellectual culture of the 19th and 20th centuries was greater in Romanticism than in Classical

Worldview

creates the opposite pole to the intelligent person

science

Psychology / Parapsychology

by dealing with the most diverse expressions of healthy and sick mental life

Linguistics

Grammar, word formation theory, the Grimm brothers were the founders of German studies, e.g. Grimm's dictionary

Literary history

young science was only practiced by the romantics

History and folklore

first systematic research in the fields of historical science (Leopold von Ranke), especially the German prehistory and the Middle Ages

sociology

Redeployment of society

Education educated and art-understanding bourgeoisie emancipation of women began

Special position of the artist

Neo-romanticism

Revival of romantic ideals at the end of the 18th century

Aftermath on poets of the following epochs; Symbolism, surrealism, expressionism

CLASSIC ROMANCE

Figure not included in this excerpt

Thesis paper

romance

Definition: intellectual, political, artistic, literary movement, as an opposition movement against rationalism, pan-European phenomenon with national characteristics (especially France, England and Italy) and Germany as the center

Time: Europe: 1793-1850, Germany: 1793-1830

Origin: Sturm und Drang

Term: Latin: romance = in the vernacular, originally: romance-like, i.e. invented, unreal, remote from life, unreal, F. Schlegel: romantic = poetic

Symbol of romance: blue flower> represents love, longing

- Historical situation

Figure not included in this excerpt

-Philosophical basics

Figure not included in this excerpt

-The romantic approach to life, zeitgeist

typical romantics: -young men, often students; pronounced anti-civic attitudes, early death

new keywords: "Feeling", "Imagination", "Experience", "Longing"

Longing for: dream world, belief in miracles, supernatural, nature, foreign countries, God, death, the Middle Ages

Critique of the Romantics: social norms, man = subject to the machine, self-alienation, role of women

not only beauty, grace and domesticity, but spirit and masculine energy, the same education, rights, and duties as man

Women's emancipation was in the preparatory phase

Aspects: Escape from reality, the wonderful, closeness to nature, the Middle Ages, all-unity, family, state and church, artists and philistines, education

- music in romance

Typical: - Emphasis on nature, folk character, solution of fixed design types

Forms: folk song, singspiel, art song, opera, extended orchestra, ballets, symphonies, house music, revolutionary opera

Instrumentation: oboe, clarinet, piano

Representatives: from Weber, Schumann, Liszt, Tschaikowsky, Chopin, Wagner, van Beethoven ("Hero Symphony") XMode in Romanticism

Men: top hat

Women: tight corsets, hoop skirts, piled-up hairstyles, decorated with embellishments / decorations, bonnets with frills, embroidery, ribbons

-Art in romance

Figure not included in this excerpt

- Romantic poetry

Characteristics: revival of the German Middle Ages, striving for German folk wealth, inclination to open forms, blurring of boundaries between literary genres, heightening of illusion through the romantic style of language, poeticization of life, poetic way of life is more important than the literary work itself

Language: simple folklore, hardly any foreign words, forgotten words from the Middle Ages, expressions often broken and unclear genres

Drama: Shakespeare translated, historical dramas, comedy

lyric: small intimate poems, uniform stanzas, folk content

Novella: preferably written down for brevity, moods, themes: the wonderful and the demonic

Novels / fragment: most important genre, often fragment, integration of other genres, insertion of conversations, fairy tales, songs, letters inserted, epic

Fairy tales: the most important genre, not a real occurrence, but free from anything representational, just playing with the reader's imagination

Translations: on a high level, translations / adaptations: Shakespeare, Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Horace, Indian, Chinese, Asian, Oriental poetry

Design elements

Universal poetry: the boundaries between the individual types of poetry disappeared, the peculiarities of the sexes should be mixed

Shantasy richness / depth of feeling: preference for foreboding moods, miracles, demonies, dreams, nothing clear and unambiguous, without explanations

symbolism: important means of expression, many aspects of Sigmund Freud's dream symbolism

Romantic irony: Poet creates cheerful illusions and then deliberately destroys them, Scheinwerk clarifies

Humor: very good-natured, sunny humor

-1798-1804 Early Romanticism (also called Universal, Jena or older Romanticism)

entren: Berlin, Jena

Typical: - deals with nature, world soul, artistic genius, strong political imprint, striving for a spiritual totality, formation of a closed one

Spiritual community, wanted to enforce the emancipation of women and free love, critical-scientific examination of the

Classical (turning away from ancient patterns), novels and fairy tales

Agents and plants:

Schlegel brothers: translated Shakespeare (standard stage version)

Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg): sample novel "Heinrich von Ofterdingen", "Hymns to the night"

Ludwig Tieck: fairy tale parody "Puss in Boots"

-1804-1816 High Romanticism (also called National Romanticism or Younger Romanticism)

entren: Berlin, Heidelberg, Dresden

Typical: -religious and imaginative characters, interest in the history of the people and languages, folk songs, sagas, fairy tales were collected, concentration on

the Holy Roman Empire, renewal of national self-confidence, irrationalist, publication of works from the medieval and the

Folk poetry, renunciation of philosophical speculations and theoretical considerations, patriotism through Napoleonic foreign rule

Agents and plants:

Heinrich von Kleist: Novellas: "The Marquise", "Michael Kohlhaas", Dramas: "Prince Friedrich von Homburg", "The Broken Jug" Clemens Brentano: Folk song collection "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff: the most widely read romantic, novella "From the life of a good-for-nothing"

Brothers Grimm: Collection and publication of old German texts, children's and household tales, 32-volume mammoth work "The German Dictionary", grammar

Achim von Arnim: "Newspaper for Hermits"

Bettina von Arnim: "Conversation with demons"

Wilhelm Hauff: fairy tale "The inn in the Spessart"

-1816-1830 Late Romanticism (also called Black Romanticism or Swabian Romanticism)

entren: Berlin, Swabia

Typical: turn to Catholicism, subordination to wholes such as church, religion, people and state, popular song, Christian poetry, allade, saga

Agents and plants:

Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann “Gespensterhoffmann”: detective novella “Das Fräulein von Scuderi”, horror novel “The Elixirs of Evil”

Ludwig Uhland: "Patriotic poems":

Gustav Schwab: "German Folk Books"

Heinrich Heine: "Harzreise"

-1815 - 1848 Biedermeier (also called Vormärz or Restoration Period)

shaped by: Congress of Vienna, the beginning of industrialization, existential pessimism, withdrawal into privacy, new sociability, falling back on older ones

literary traditions of enlightenment and sensitivity

Literature: taming of passions, silent submission to fate, harmony with nature, satisfaction with the "little luck"

formal, stylistic characteristics: preference for smaller generic forms

new forms of publication: literary magazines, paperbacks

Stage: fairy tale and magic pieces, family and stirring pieces, historical trivial dramas and classicistic high-class drama

Biedermeier poets: Adalbert Stifter, Eduard Mörike, Annette von Droste-Hülshoff

- Romance outside of Germany

England: Lord Byron, John Keats (lyrics)

France: Breakthrough: "Über Deutschland", Victor Hugo, drama "Cromwell"

>> self-employed Italy, Spain, Portugal

Russia: French literature; Great German influence on Aleksandr Pushkin, Michail Lermontow. USA: Orientation towards English models, important authors: Washington Irving

- aftermath of romance

Weltanschauung: created an antipole to people with understanding

Science: Psychology / Parapsychology: occupation with the healthy and sick mental life

Linguistics: grammar, word formation theory, the Grimm brothers were the founders of German studies, e.g. Grimm's dictionary

History of literature: young science was only pursued by the Romantics. History and folklore: 1. Systematic research in the fields of historical science (Leopold von Ranke), German prehistory and the Middle Ages

-iology: restructuring of society, education of educated and art-understanding bourgeoisie, emancipation of women began, special position of the artist

Neo-Romanticism at the end of the 18th century the revival of romantic ideals

Aftermath on poets of the following epochs; Symbolism, surrealism, expressionism

- Swell:

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Internet: http://home.t-online.de/home/ludwig-manfred/Romantik/epoche.html http://www.xlibris.de/Epochen/Romantik/Romant1.htm

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http://www.zum.de/Faecher/D/Saar/gym/romantik.htm

http://www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/~pischel/wissen/RomantikPhilosophie.html http://www.romantischesreferat.de/