Race relations are getting worse around the world
is professor for the history of the European-Transatlantic cultural area at the Philological-Historical Faculty Augsburg. Her main research interests are transatlantic relations, African American history and the history of religion. [email protected]
The article provides an overview of developments since the 1960s and discusses the most important advances and deficits in relation to the political, social and economic situation of African Americans up to the present day. In order to be able to adequately appreciate the achievement of King and the black civil rights movement, it makes sense to remember in advance the situation of black Americans in the period before the Second World War.
Era of segregationAfter the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865), constitutional amendments banned slavery throughout the United States and freed African Americans were granted full civil rights and the right to vote. Hardly, however, had the last northern troops reached the south at the end of the period reconstruction Abandoned in 1877, the southern white elite began to re-establish their rule over the black population through a sophisticated system of new laws.  These laws were known as the Jim Crow Laws  and were basically aimed at three things: first on the political incapacitation of the black population (for example through the targeted exclusion from the electoral roll), Secondly on the control of black workers (for example through laws that forbade any professional activity outside of agriculture or the servant sector) and third finally, segregation, that is, racial segregation, in all areas of public life.
The Jim Crow system was based on the fact that African-Americans were not viewed as equal citizens but as second-class people who had to keep their distance from the white "master race". Blacks had to sit in their own compartments in the back of the bus and on the train; Restaurants, cinemas, swimming pools and even drinking fountains were segregated, as were hospitals and schools. The facilities for whites were always better equipped than those for blacks. African Americans in the south were completely excluded from attending state universities, not only because most whites did not think they were intelligent enough to complete a university degree, but mainly because it was in the interests of the white rulers to encourage the black population as much as possible to maintain a low level of education.
The Jim Crow laws proved to be extremely effective for almost a century, especially since attempts by black people to resist were punished not only through criminal law but also through brutal terrorist measures by the Ku Klux Klan and other racist white organizations. Between 1877 and 1950, more than 3,900 African Americans were lynched by white mobs in the southern United States. 
Afro-Americans tried again and again to rebel against their oppression, but with relatively little success until the middle of the 20th century. With the Second World War, however, some important parameters changed: First increased through the participation of over a million African-American soldiers in the war who fought against Nazi racism in Europe and learned a life without legal segregation, their self-esteem and reluctance to continue to obey the Jim Crow laws. That is why many became involved in the civil rights movement after they returned home. Secondly the legal discrimination of black citizens in the south of the USA became an increasingly embarrassing and internationally known problem for the US government during the Cold War. Third In May 1954, the US Supreme Court declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. As a result, a new era of black freedom struggle began in 1955.
The 382 day long successful bus boycott of Montgomery, Alabama, catapulted the young, charismatic Baptist pastor Martin Luther King Jr. to the top of the civil rights movement. He and other activists motivated hundreds of thousands to take part in demonstrations, boycotts, protest marches and many other actions. The high ideals, the willingness to make sacrifices, the courage and the steadfastness of these civil rights activists, of whom thousands of white racists were brutally mistreated and many were killed, finally moved the American government to give in. In the mid-1960s, a new era of legal equality for the Afro-American population finally began, which brought about many other positive changes.
- Why can't humans build interstellar ships?
- What can I do after power engineering
- What are the properties of laser light
- What is a political region
- Japan is bigger than Iran
- Apartments have to be ADA-compliant
- Who Runs Growth at Lyft
- Did prehistoric humans wage wars?
- Why is Tom Brady so polarizing
- Should I buy a RE Classic 350?
- Who is the Top Consultant in Bangalore
- How can I use a DACI matrix
- Are Pioneer headphones good
- What are the growing markets for surgical gowns
- Did Hitler want to exterminate all homosexuals
- Google comes to campus in ceg
- How much capacity will transmission lines have
- How long has Hindi been spoken?
- Why do the mutual wealth games take place
- Has the Supreme Court ever committed corruption?
- How do you rewrite your short stories
- What is a three-state area
- Will the blockchain survive for the next 10 years?
- Can work a relationship with an alcoholic