How a fern multiplies
Ferns are plants that grow in the shade and in damp places, for example in the forest, in crevices and gorges or on the banks of a stream. They do not form seeds to multiply, but spores. There are around 12,000 different species around the world, and around 100 in our countries. In the case of the fern, one speaks not of leaves, but of fronds.
There was a great deal of fern in the world over 300 million years ago. These plants were much larger than today's. They are therefore called tree ferns. Some of them still exist today in the tropics. Most of our coal comes from dead fern.
How do ferns multiply?
Ferns reproduce without flowers. Instead, you see large, mostly round points on the underside of the fronds. These are piles of capsules. They are light at the beginning and then turn dark green to brown.
Once these capsules are ripe, they will burst and release their spores. The wind carries them away. If they fall on the ground in a shady, damp place, they will begin to grow. These little plants are called pre-seedlings.
Female and male organs for reproduction arise on the underside of the pre-seedling. The male cells then swim to the female egg cells. After fertilization, a young fern plant emerges from it. The whole thing takes about a year.
Illustration in a book from 1885
Ferns roll out as they grow.
Here, too, a new leaf is created.
Ferns also grow on walls.
Ostrich fern on a forest floor in Sweden
There are also other search results for "Ferns" from Blind Cow and Ask Finn.
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