What is lipochrome pigment

Fig 1, Here you can see the red color of the seeds that are collected to make the red dye

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1 Fig. 1, Here you can see the red color of the seeds that are collected to produce the red dye The Urucum mutation in the color canaries Text by Antonio M. Lara New mutation from the C.O.M. recognized. In July 2013, the COM was once again lucky enough to finally recognize a new mutation that affects color canaries: This new mutation, called Urucum and of Brazilian origin, has passed its third year of recognition before an international judges' committee OMJ-COM, so that the Urucum -Mutation officially becomes a new variant of the color canaries. Why the name "Urucum"? This is the most common question among breeders: Why Urucum? Urucum is a plant originating in Brazil, popularly called URU-KU, which means red. It is traditionally used by the Brazilian Indians as a raw material source for red dyes, which are used for various purposes, including cosmetic purposes. For this reason, Brazilian breeders decided to name this mutation Urucum, in reference to this beautiful plant and as a token of their bond. See Fig. 1 I personally disagree with the name of the mutation, as the name "Urucum" refers to the color of the red lipochrome and not to the actual characteristics of the mutation, as the mutation also occurs in yellow and white lipochromes, ie it is the same mutation in the three colors white, yellow and red, with only the latter being accepted as a mutation.

2 Notice how the dye is made by the locals. You can see a very bright red color perfectly. Tint the dye once it is finished. A little history According to the data available, the urucum mutation appeared around 1992. It is said that they first appeared in canaries in the aviaries of Rogerio Diniz, a native of the city of Resende (Rio de Janeiro), because he became aware of birds that were born with slightly reddish beaks. After this fact, he decided to check whether it was a mutation or not, but like any new mutation, it was not without its difficulties. He was able to determine that the birds showed the mutation phenotypically even after the moulting period. However, they suffered from neurological balance disorders. It is therefore commendable that the Brazilian breeders have endeavored to advance this mutation, to work with these specimens painstakingly and for a long time. They selected the toughest ones to mate with other birds. With the split birds they achieved, they managed to eliminate these deficiencies today. The picture perfectly shows and confirms that there is no confusion in identifying the mutated specimens: look at these 3-day-old chicks, where you can very well see which individuals are mutated and which are not.

3 newborns, the birds affected by the urucum mutation are perfectly recognizable. Adult birds, not mutated on the left, affected by the urucum mutation on the right. These birds are bred in Spain by Miss Susana Mondelo Manzano. In 2004 these specimens were officially released before the O.B.J.O. (Orden Brasileña de Jueces de Ornitología) as a first step towards recognition, in compliance with the C.O.M. and O.M.J. rules, (Confederación Ornitológica Mundial and World Order of Judges). This first recognition was approved by a committee of Brazilian judges after evaluating the specimens exhibited and submitting an explanatory dossier. In July 2010 the Urucum mutation became the 59th Brazilian Ornithology Championship of an O.M.J./C.O.M. The judges' commission was presented, made up of the following judges: Pierre Groux (Francia) Roberto Rossi (Italy). Eduardo Levigne (Argentina) Manuel Ramón Sanz (España). Nest with two mutated and one non-mutated bird. Note the good condition of the birds with optimal development, you can already see the color of the beak perfectly in the nest.

4 Mr Álvaro Blasina was the one who took on the responsibility of giving the presentation to the aforementioned committee and answering and resolving any question or doubt that the members of the evaluation committee might have. The request was made to give a new presentation the following year at a meeting of the O.M.J./C.O.M. judges in Paris. We show two specimens, not mutated on the left and affected by the Urucum mutation on the right, the reddish tint of the beak can be clearly seen, also note the differences in the lipochrome color, which appears more clearly than that of the non-mutated specimen. Bird affected by the urucum mutation. Valuable red mold affected by the Urucum mutation, good size and shape, clear signs that the mutation is fully fixed.

5 specimen in intense red, bred in Valencia by Miss Susana Mondelo Manzano.

6 General information on the Urucum mutation This mutation was initially only recognized for red intensive and schimmel and for the rubinos in intensive and schimmel. The genetic behavior is autosomal and recessive, so that both parents have to carry the allele for a urucum to develop in the offspring. The Urucum mutation affects both the color of the beaks and legs and the lipochrome i.e. H. it has the ability to deposit lipochrome pigments in the horn parts so that they appear reddish, and also affects the general appearance of the feather, which gives it a certain fascination that makes the birds a great beauty. I was surprised and curious about the phenotypic behavior of this mutation due to the certain similarity to the cobalt mutation. It actually causes an effect similar to the cobalt mutation, but with the obvious difference that the same effect is produced once on lipochrome and the other on melanin. It should also be noted that this mutation is subject to the different degrees of intensity in the color, so that the horn parts can vary in shade depending on the quality. It does not affect the lower plumage, so it remains identical to the non-mutated lipochrome. The pigmentation of the plumage also varies. This property is more evident in the mold specimens than in birds with an intensive category. What this mutation really does is Another specimen affected by the Urucum mutation, really nice. Bird in lipochrome red intense in white wings and with the urucum mutation

7 the deposition of lipochrome pigments on the feather edges which are otherwise free of them (i.e. in the white edges). These pigments, which are deposited in the feather rim, have a slightly thinner tint than the natural lipochrome color, so they are pink in color. Nest with three gray birds, two mutated and one non-mutated. Note the color of the legs of a white lipochrome bird affected by the mutation, they are light, pale in color. It has also been proven and verified that the Ivoor factor also acts on the tint of the lipochrome pigments deposited in the horny parts, diluting them and having a more diluted color. It has been proven that this mutation in no way affects melanin. I have to mention that this mutation is also expressed in the yellow lipochrome canaries and the white canaries, whereby the yellow ones with yellow horn parts and the whites with white horn parts appear in a more or less light tint. Four young birds, their parents are both red. It can be clearly seen, two specimens in lipochrome red are mutated and two birds in white, one of them mutated and the other not mutated. Male specimen in lipochrome yellow with yellow beak, which makes the mutation very visible. So far, without going into any further obviously unknown details, I have more or less told the details of this mutation "Urucum" with the intention that all Spanish breeders know or can know that these new birds exist.

8 Does the urucum mutation really originate in Brazil? I do not intend to take away from the Brazilian breeders their worth or recognition because it is obvious that they are the ones who promoted the viability and recognition of this mutation, but I think it would be unfair not to mention it here as well specimens of urucum existed in Spain, and there are even breeders who claim to have bred them and exhibited them in competitions before 1992. I would like to name Mr. José Luis Lozano Perea, national breeder Q-002, who in 1991 kept some yellow-beaked specimens in his aviary. As early as 1996 he had fixed the mutation in the yellow lipochrome canaries without recognizing it in the white birds. In the latter, it is more difficult to see the effects of the mutation and to get a feel for sick birds. Ms. Susana Mondelo Manzano, national breeder ID-30 from the town of Ontinyent, is also currently breeding Urucum birds. I personally had the opportunity to see some yellow lipochrome birds with yellow beaks during the National F.O.C.D.E. which took place in Seville in 2004 and which apparently presented a breeder to be examined by the CT of the Judges College Color. I do not know whether the application in question aroused interest in this color on the CT or whether it was rejected. The mutation urucum can not only occur in canaries, we can also get the mutation in hybrids. In this case we show a specimen F1l Canary dominant white X Goldfinch, the fallen hybrid has some very noticeable properties, apart from the clearly visible white horn parts, this is also shown in the lipochrome of the mask, i.e. That is, the mutation affects the lipochrome of the mask and reverses the red mask color to white. Note the lipochrome of the mask, the white lipochrome, and the whitish corneal parts. White bird affected by the mutation. Note the color of the beak and legs. At first glance it appears to be recessive white, but it is dominant white. Note: I would like to publicly thank: Ms. Susana Mondelo Manzano, Mr. José Luis Lozano Perea, Mr. Alvaro Blasina for your unselfish cooperation and for providing all the information I requested.