What is an INRM coin


(Coin relations)

General: Currencies and coin relations up to the 17th century - in the 18th century - purchasing power table -
Oldenburg Middle Ages - Oldenburg Early Modern Age - Oldenburg from 18./19. century


General Information

The types of coins and their valuation changed even more than the other proportions. In addition to the strong local differentiation, there was the ongoing devaluation and the introduction of new types of coins.

Some terms and designations used in coinage

Rough weight or Shot = Gross weight
Fine weight = Net weight, amount by weight of precious metal
grain = Fineness, ratio of fineness to grist
Passing weight = legally stipulated lower weight (wear and tear)
Schlagschatz = Net profit of the mint owner (difference between face value and metal value plus minting costs)
Coin foot = Legal regulation on shot and grain (weight and fineness) or on the number of coins to be minted from a certain amount of metal
Contrast: Kurant coin (Nominal value = metal value) Dividing coin (Nominal value over metal value)
Convention base = 1 mark fine = 20 guilders (since 1753 coinage convention)

From the 8th - 13th centuries: Pfennig currency (denarii or pfännige; originally a silver coin as a currency for the weight mark, then copper. In minting up to modern times, not every penny had the same weight, it only needed a certain number of pieces together with the prescribed one Weight, fluctuations in the individual weight up to 40%, such coins were called Schowelpfennig)

from 14th - 15th century: Groschen currency (Schillinge or Latin solidus, abbreviation: ß; Groschen = imitations of the French gros Tournois, from the Grossi Pragenses coined around 1300 the word groschen emerged)

from 15th - 16th century: gold currency (gold, in Florence since 1252, therefore Floren, abbreviation fl.)

from the 16th - 19th century thaler currency (silver)

from 1873 to 1923: gold standard

since then: mainly paper money (with small coins to compensate, partly precious metal parts of gold, silver, copper)

The name mark comes from the brand, the marks of weight or value imprinted on the silver piece. The mark probably comes from the Scandinavian north (first mentioned in 1015), was seldom used until 1100 and later almost completely displaced the “pound” as a face and coin measure. There were numerous differences in time and place, and each major trading town and mint had its own mark, which often changed its weight considerably. In some places there were different brands for different needs at the same time, e.g. in Cologne initially 2, then 3, at times up to 12. Today's reference value of a Cologne mark = 233.779 g


Currencies and coin relations general and examples related to Oldenburg

Until around 1500

Initially: 1 lb (counting size only, never expressed) = 12 ounces of fine silver = 8 shillings = 240 pfennigs = 1 florin; 30 pfennigs = 1 shilling (or solidus); 1 talent (um) = 1 pound of pennies
1225: 660 pfennigs = 1 silver mark
1344: 960 pfennigs = 1 silver mark
1400: 1200 - 1400 pfennigs = 1 silver mark

745: 1 Shilling (solidus) = 12 (pfennig) denarii
after 751: 22 (also 20) shillings = 1 pound = 240 pfennigs
14th century: 1 shilling = 30 pfennigs

sterling: came to England by German merchants under the name "Osterling", probably the Carolingian pfennig. Minted on the Rhine and in Westphalia at the beginning of the 13th century, it dominated monetary transactions between 1260 and 1320. 1 sterling = about 1 pfennig.

1 Cross penny = (Bremen, 1360-1550)
1 mark = 8 ounces of 2 lot each or = 16 shillings (solidi), the latter usually in Hanseatic cities
1 mark = 12 shillings = 144 pfennigs
1 mark = 16 Schilling = 192 Pfennig (Lübeck)
1 mark = 32 Grote = 384 Pfennig (Bremen)
1 mark = 48 shillings = 576 pfennigs

1 Witte (also Landwitt) = 4 pfennigs. Introduced by the Hanseatic cities out of consideration for the sterling. Ruling coin on the German Baltic Sea (Hanseatic region) from Pomerania to Oldenburg (Holstein), in Lüneburg and temporarily in Hanover from the end of the 14th century. Minted on the Rhine.

1 Sextuplets or Körtling = 6 Pfennig (Hanseatic area)
1 Sextuplets or Körtling = 3 Pfennig (Braunschweig)

1 Mathiasgroschen = 4 - 6 Pfennig (Goslar)
1 Mathiasgroschen = 3 Pfennig (Braunschweig)

1 Farmer's egg = 12 - 17 pfennigs
1 Farmer's egg = 7 Pfennig (Braunschweig)
1 small, medium and largePenny = 3 and 6 and 12 Pfennig (Braunschweig)

1 Gold guilders = 30 Witte (Hanover)
1 Gold guilders = 9 Schilling = 108 Pfennig (Braunschweig and Goslar)
1 Gold guilders = 18 Schilling = 216 Pfennig (Hildesheim and Göttingen)
1 Gold guilders = 12 peasant groschen = 45 small Mathias groschen (Goslar)
1 Gold guilders = 10 large, 20 medium, 40 small groschen (Braunschweig)
1 Mörgen (Gold coin in Bremen, probably 15th-16th century, comparative values ​​unknown)
1 Reich guilder = 60 cruisers

approx. 1500 - 1550

1 Mariengroschen = 6 - 8 pfennigs
1 Mariengroschen = 2 Matthier, small Brunswick groschen, large Goslar Matthias groschen
1 Mariengroschen = 3 körtlinge, Hildesheim groschen, small Matthias groschen
1 Penny = 50 Matthier (Schaumburg)
1 Penny = 40 Matthier (Gronau)
1 Schreckberger = 10 schillings (Schaumburg)

1 Körtling (Cruiser) = 1/3 Mariengroschen = 4 Goslarn (Goslar, Hildesheim, Calenberg)

1 mark = 4 contracts = 16 shillings = 192 pfennigs

1 Wendentaler = 2 marks

1 gulden (also gold, general, from the 14th century, here values ​​for the 16th century) = 20 Kreuzer, (later) 72 Kreuzer 21 Groschen, also 75 Kreuzer = 1 ½ Gulden (in the 18th century = 2 G., beginning 19th century 1 G. = 2 Rt.), 72 G. = 1 rough mark, 93 G. = 1 fine mark
1 gulden = 10 - 11 Mariengroschen (Hildesheim and Braunschweig)
1 gulden = 32 Groschen = 36 Grote = 216 Sware (Schaumburg)
1 gulden = 32 Schilling Luebisch = 2 Mark Luebisch
1 gulden = 24 shillings (Stade)
1 gulden = 36 Grote = 180 Sware (Office Ottersberg)
1 gulden = 1 ½ Mark = 24 Schillings = 288 Pfennig (Mecklenburg)

1 Valleys (Silver coin) = 1 Rhenish gold guilder
First minted around 1484/86 by Archduke Sigismund of Austria, then by many others, including the Archbishop of Bremen in 1511, in order to have a larger silver coin than the groschen. The coin was first called "Guldengroschen". After they also had the Count von Schick minted in Joachimstal, it was named "T (h) aler" after this place. In the beginning, every coin that weighed more than 1 lot of the Cologne mark was named this way. Most popular and widespread coin of all time - the dollar is also named after it.

approx. 1550 - 1600

15 varieties Pennies (1600), the best 120 pfennigs = 1 florin, the lowest: 576 pfennigs = 1 florin
1 Princely penny or New penny = 12 pfennigs
1 Penny = 16 Pfennig = 32 Scherf
1 Matthier = ½ Mariengroschen = 4 pfennigs = 1/72 thaler
1 Penny = 2 Schilling 1 Witte = 3 Kortling = 4 Blaffert = 9 Witte = 12 Gosler = 18 Schwaar = 36 Lübesch = 1/24 Thaler (Schaumburg)

1 Thaler = 16 Luebian double shillings
1 Thaler = 21 Schiling (Westphalia)
1 Thaler = 24 new pennies
1 Thaler = 30 Stüber (East Frisia)
1 Thaler = 30 Groschen = 48 Grote (Schaumburg)
1 Thaler = 31 shillings (Stade)
1 Thaler = 32 Schilling (Lüneburg, Hanseatic cities)
1 Thaler = 32 (after 1648: 48) Schilling (Hanover)
1 Thaler = 36 groschen or Mariengroschen
1 Thaler = 48 Grote = 240 Sware (Office Ottersberg)
1 Thaler = 54 Grote (Bremen)
1 Thaler = 64 sextuplets
1 Thaler = 68 cruisers
1 Thaler = 96 threes
1 Thaler = 128 triplets
Brake thaler, also Brömsentaler (Lübeck since 16th century)
Danielstaler (Ever since the middle of the 16th century)
1 Reichstaler = 1 Reichsgulden = 1 Speziestaler (originally), 1566: 1 row = 68 Kreuzer

1 gulden = 20 - 21 groschen = 240 pfennigs
1 gulden = 36 groschen (Schaumburg)
1 Reich guilder (Gold coin, from 1584 also silver coin of the same value) = 1550: 1 Rt. 14 Groschen, 1559: 1 Rt. 7 Groschen 6 Pfennig

1 mark = 5 groschen 1 kortling
1 mark = 16 shillings (Stade)

1 Rose noble = 7 thalers

approx. 1600 - 1650

Eighteen pfennigs, alsoDistrict called, 16 A. = 1 Rt., 96 A. = 1 rough mark (Bremen, Lübeck 17th century)

1 Third party = 2 ½ swarms = ½ Groten (Bremen, before 18th century?)

1 Eutinians = 6 shilling piece (17th century?)

1 Thaler (Reichstaler) = 24 good groschen = 288 pfennigs
1 Thaler (Reichstaler) = 32 schillings (after 1622 = 48 schillings)
1 Thaler (Reichstaler) = 16 eagle or double shillings (Schaumburg)
1 Thaler (Reichstaler) = 54 Grote (Bremen)
1 Thaler (Reichstaler) = 4 place
1 Thaler (Reichstaler) = 48 Schiling = 16 Dütchen
1 Thaler (Reichstaler) = 36 Mariengroschen = 7 Schreckenberger = 432 Großler (Schaumburg)
1 Reichstaler = 1665: 90 Kreuzer, later: 120 Kreuzer to 2 guilders depending on the type of minting

1 Gold guilders = 1 Thaler 4 Mariengroschen = 40 Mariengroschen
1 Reich guilder = 1632: 23 groschen 8 pfennig, 1667: 20 groschen 3 pfennig, 1690: 17 groschen 9 pfennig

1 Ducats = 3 guilders (Germany, general 17th century; German imperial coin 1559 - 1857)


Tipper and Wipper period (period of the coin degraders in the 30 Years War)

1 Thaler 1610 = 28 groschen
1 Thaler 1617 = 48 groschen
1 Thaler = 1620 = 60 groschen
1 Thaler 1621 = 120 groschen
1 Thaler 1621 = 192 groschen
1 Thaler 1622 = 24 groschen

Information from: Franz Engel, tables, old coins, dimensions and weights for use by archive users, Rinteln 1965, pp. 13-18. Fritz Verdenhalven, old dimensions, coins and weights from the German-speaking area, Neustadt. d. Aisch, 1968, pp. 17-54.
 

General: Currencies and coin relations up to the 17th century - in the 18th century - purchasing power table -
Oldenburg Middle Ages - Oldenburg Early Modern Age - Oldenburg from 18./19. century


Second half of the 18th century (examples affecting Oldenburg)

According to currency tables from 1780/90 in convention currency (=> Reichstaler / Groschen / Pfennige)


Hanseatic City of Bremen

1 Valleys = 72 Grote => 1 Rt.
1 Mark Banco (1790) = "1 double mark" = 48 grot (s) => 16 gr.
1 mark = 30 cruisers (1741)
1 Düttgen = 4 ½ size => 1 size 6 pf.
1 Flin (d) rich = 4 Grot = 16 Pfenning (3 F. = 1 head piece, 8 F. = 1 Bremer Mark, 18 F. = 1 Rt.) => 1 Gr. 4 pf.
1 Grot = 1/72 thaler = 5 flocks => 4 pfennigs.
1 Headjoint = 3 Flinrich = 12 Grot = 15 Kreuzer (Bremen, Westphalia 1741, 1790: 4 Groschen) => 4 Gr.
1 Shilling = 1 ½ Grot => 6 Pf.
1 Black = 1/5 large (5 black = 1 large), 1741: 1 black = 2 pfennigs, 1790: 1 black = 4/5 pfennigs => 4/5 pfennigs.


Ostfriesland

1 Syf (f) ert (from 1717) = ½ Stüber
1 Grot = 1 ½ Syfert = 3 places; 4 Grot = 3 Stüber (also Stüver - 18th century?)
1 Flinderke (also Flinds, from 1504) = ½ Schilling = 3 Stüber = 1½ Schaap = 15 Pfenning => 1 Gr. 3 Pf.
1 Guilder courant => 8 gr. 4 Pf.
1 Krumsteert = 4 Witte, 1790: 2 Pfennig => 2 Pf.
1 Oertgen => 1 ¼ Pf. (1790)
1 Shilling = 3 sheep => 2 gr. 5 Pf.
1 Schaap (also Schäp, Schaf) = 2 Stüber (Stüver) = 2 ½ Groten = 20 Witten = 10 Pfennig
1 Stüver = 4 Oertgens = 10 Witte => 5 Pf.
1 Witte (Weißpfennig; in East Frisia after 1500) = 1/60 Schilling => ½ Pf.
1 Crisp cake (Knapkoeken - 18th century?) = 1 gold gold


State of Hanover

1 Gold guilders => 2 Rt. 3 Gr. 1 Pf.
1 Valleys = 16 Mariengroschen => 1 Rt. 2 Gr. 8 Pf.
1 Mariengroschen => 8 4/7 Pf.
1 Place thaler (Lower Saxony) => 6 Gr.
1 Witte (Weißpfennig) = 1/144 Reichstaler (Lower Saxony) => 2 Pf.
1 Körtling = 1/3 Mariengroschen => 2 2/3 Pf. (Westphalia)


Hanseatic City of Lübeck

1 Lübeck Courant Thaler => 1 rt. 4 Gr.
1 mark = 1741: 30 Kreuzer, 1808: 9 good groschen 11 Pfennig Berliner Courant
1 Ternarius (also Dreeling; around 1500) = 16 Witten
1 Düttgen = 4 ½ size => 1 size 6 pf.
1 Schilling Luebisch = 18th century: 8 pfennigs, 1741: 6 good pfennigs => 1 gr. 4 Pf.
1821: 60 Schilling = 48 Schilling species = 1 Rt. 15 silver groschen Courant, 40 Schilling = 32 Schilling species = 1 Rtl. Courant, 5 Schilling = 4 Schilling species = 3 silver groschen 9 Pfennig Courant


German Empire

288 heavy or good pennies = 1 Rt., 4 light Pf. = 1 Kreuzer, 12 light Pf. = 1 Kaisergroschen, 432 light Pf. = 1 Rtl.

1 Chunk = 1/15 Gulden => 10 2/3 Pf.

Conventions Coin Base:
1 Speciestaler = 1 1/3 round => 1 round 8 g
1 Couranttaler = 1 ½ rt. => 1 rt.
1 gulden = 16 gr. => 16 gr.
1 Headjoint => 5 gr. 4 Pf.
1 Seventeen => 4 gr. 6 pf.

1 Gold guilders => 2 Rt. 2 Gr. 2 Pf.
1 Guilder Conventions => 16 gr.
1 Königsthaler, Dickthaler = 25 lumps => 1 bag, 2 gr. 8 Pf.
1 Cruiser light => 2 2/3 Pf.
1 Mariengulden => 13 gr. 4 pf.
1 Mark Banco soldered gold = 72 gold guilders => 96 Rt.
1 New two-thirds = 16 gr. = 24 Mariengroschen => 17 Gr. 9 Pf.
1 good penny = 1 1/12 groschen => 1 Pf.
1 light penny => 2/3 Pf.
1 Penny lübisch = 1/12 Schilling => 7/12 Pf.
1 Reich guilder = 1750: 16 groschen => 17 gr. 9 Pf., 1764: 15 Groschen 3 Pfennig. According to the 24 Guldenfuß: 1 Reichsgulden = 13 Groschen 4 Pfennig
1 Reichstaler (1763) => 1 Rt.
1 Rhenish gold guilder => 2 Rt. 2 Gr. 2 Pf.
1 Speciestaler => 1 rt. 8 Gr.
1 old two-thirds => 20 gr. 4 Pf.
1 new two-thirdsLeipzig foot => 17 gr. 9 Pf.
1 new two-thirdsConventions foot => 16 gr.

Information mainly based on: Franz Engel, tables, old coins, dimensions and weights for use by archive users, Rinteln 1965, pp. 13-18. Supplemented from: Fritz Verdenhalven, old dimensions, coins and weights from the German-speaking area, Neustadt an. d. Aisch, 1968, pp. 17-54.


Purchasing power of old coins
compared to Reichsmark (RM) 1937/39 and Deutscher Mark (DM) 1967

 

 

Approximately corresponds to the purchasing power

Period

Coin unit

1937/39 in RM

1967 in DM

1226 – 1375

1 penny

0,60

1,10

 

1 shilling

2,40

4,30

1376 – 1450

1 shilling

4,35

7,80

 

1 Witten (= 4 Pfg.)

1,45

2,60

 

1 penny

0,36

0,62

1451 – 1545

1 shilling

3,-

5,40

1546

1 Reichstaler

38,34

69,-

 

1 shilling

1,24

2,23

1611 – 1622

1 Reichstaler

25,-

45,-

1622 – 1775

1 Reichstaler
(on average)

18,- – 24,-

35,50 – 43,20

1839 – 1855

1 Prussian thaler

8,20

14,70

1854 – 1863

1 Prussian thaler

5,-

9,-

1 DM when determining the relation to the euro before its introduction on January 1, 2002 = € 0.511291881

Values ​​from: Fritz Verdenhalven, old dimensions, coins and weights from the German-speaking area, Neustadt. d. Aisch, 1968, p. 7; after Wilhelm Jesse: Münz- und Geldgeschichte, in: Methodical Handbook for Local Research in Lower Saxony, ed. by Helmut Jäger, Hildesheim 1965, p. 77.


General: Currencies and coin relations up to the 17th century - in the 18th century - purchasing power table -
Oldenburg Middle Ages - Oldenburg Early Modern Age - Oldenburg from 18./19. century
 

County / (GroSS) Duchy / Land of Oldenburg with the city of Oldenburg

Tribal areas and empires in the later Oldenburg area in Germania and at the time of the Great Migration

No local coinage yet, only hoarded Roman trade or booty coins: Solidus (Gold coin) not found in the area of ​​the State of Oldenburg, but Denarii (Silver) and Sesterces (Copper), others?


Dominions in the later Oldenburg area in the early Middle Ages

Almost complete cessation of the circulation of money in Western and Central Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, exchange of goods. Rare Carolingian coins since Emperor Charlemagne (reign 742-814).

- Relevant mints: various, especially probably in the Franconian heartland

Coins: Denarii or Silver pennies, 1 pound of silver = 376 g = 240 denars, 12 denars = 1 counting shilling or solidus, 20 shillings = 1 pound


County of Oldenburg in the High and Late Middle Ages

Resumption of permanent money circulation after 1000. Since the 11th century the Cologne mark (approx. 230 g) top unit of account, 1 mark = 12 shillings of 12 denarii = 144 pfennigs. Only the pfennig originally measured at 1.5-1.6 g was minted. The Billungian dukes of Saxony minted in their mint in Jever.

- Relevant mints after 1000: Cologne, Jever, Wildeshausen and others
 

Jever denarii (11th century). Images from: History of the State of Oldenburg, ed. by Albrecht Eckhardt and Heinrich Schmidt, 4th improved and expanded edition Oldenburg 1993, p. 98.


Coins: Cologne, Jeveraner (and other?) Pfennigs, plus foreign coins in circulation from Dortmund, Goslar, Cologne, East Frisia, even England and Arabia.
1200-1240 sterling minted in Westphalia based on the English model (weight and value like pennies); mainly in Münster, including in Ravensberg and Wildeshausen.

- Relevant mints 13.-15. Century: Oldenburg, Vechta, others?

First counts coinageLate 13th century based on the Bremen model (Bremen weight mark, silver coin): Hollow pennies or Bracteates (one-sided embossing).
 

Hollow pennies (bracteates) of the Counts of Oldenburg, Oldenburg mint (end of the 13th century). Images from: History of the State of Oldenburg, ed. by Albrecht Eckhardt and Heinrich Schmidt, 4th improved and expanded edition Oldenburg 1993, p. 114.


Competition between Bremen silver (light) and Westphalian pfennigs (heavy currency), pfennigs prevail.

Therefore additional coinage at the beginning of the 14th century based on the Westphalian model: Thick pennies or Fester (embossed on both sides).
 

Big groschen from the Vechta Mint (around 1380, at that time outside the state of Oldenburg), from the Astrup find. Images from: History of the State of Oldenburg, ed. by Albrecht Eckhardt and Heinrich Schmidt, 4th improved and expanded edition Oldenburg 1993, p. 246.


Mid to late 14th century:

a) Bremisch: 1 mark = 12 shillings, 1 shill. = 12 pfennigs
b) Oldenburg: 1 mark = 10 shillings, 1 shillings. = 12 pfennigs

Competition between penny currency and groschen currency (Grote), groschen prevail.

a) Bremen mark to 32 Groten (1 Gr. = 4.5 Pfennig: 144 Pf./32 Gr.)
b) Oldenburg Mark 30 Groten (1 Gr. = 4 Pfennig: 120 Pf./30 Gr.)
 

Turnosen from the mint in Oldenburg (end of the 14th century) from the Grabstede find. Images from: History of the State of Oldenburg, ed. by Albrecht Eckhardt and Heinrich Schmidt, 4th improved and expanded edition Oldenburg 1993, p. 135.


In addition, the circulation of foreign coins:
- other countries such as Münster and Osnabrück: Westphalian pennies
- French silver coins, original form of the unit of account Schilling: Turnosen (grossi turnenses)
- In the late Middle Ages from the Rhineland (Archbishoprics of Cologne, Mainz, Trier, Rhineland Count Palatine, Geldern, Utrecht, etc.): Gold guilders (New large coin of the late Middle Ages), Arnsche Gulden (Duke Arnold von Geldern 1423-1473).
- Since Late 15th century also Silver guilders, 2/3 later 1/2 thaler value.

Gold gulden Count Edzards I of East Friesland (never part of the state of Oldenburg, to the regret of the Oldenburg rulers), Emden mint (after 1491), front and back. Images from: History of the State of Oldenburg, ed. by Albrecht Eckhardt and Heinrich Schmidt, 4th improved and expanded edition Oldenburg 1993, p. 148, colored by Martin Teller.


When the pfennig became impractical in payment transactions (approx. 15th century), new issue in Oldenburg based on the model of the Hanseatic cities: Witten, Flindriche, Grote.

(Valleys is Austrian and imperial coin of the late 15th century, originally worth the gold guilder.)


General: Currencies and coin relations up to the 17th century - in the 18th century - purchasing power table -
Oldenburg Middle Ages - Oldenburg Early Modern Age - Oldenburg from 18./19. century


County of Oldenburg in the early modern period

Minted by Count Anton I (reign 1526-1573) 1535:

- Relevant mints: Oldenburg, others?

- Oldenburgischer (Silver)Valleys: whole, half and quarter pieces
- Gold guilders (Worth 1/3 more than the mark)

In addition, the circulation of foreign coins, used in addition to our own Oldenburg half thalers and grotes for daily payment transactions:
- from Jever? / Westphalia / Netherlands and East Frisia / other countries and cities: Gutegroschen or Mariengroschen / Schilling / Stüber
- from Münster since 1560, Osnabrück 1556 - 18th century: Westphalian copper pennies

* * *

Coinage by Count Anton Günther (reign 1603-1667):

- Relevant mints: Oldenburg, Jever, others?

Complicated coinage based on three different types of invoices:

1. after Bremen taler calculation (1 Taler = 72 Grote, 1 Grot = 5 Schwaren; 1 Reichstaler Gold = 82 Grote) [1 Grot = 4 Pfennig, 1 Schwaren = 4/5 Pfennig of the mark bill]

- silver coins: Reichstaler, Grote; Grot (en) in Lower Saxony until the 19th century also called Groot, Grotjen.
- Black hair (Schwaren) around 1500 silver coin, later copper coin
- since 1650 an additional 2/3 thalers, also [silver]gulden called

2. after Bremen mark bill (1 Mark = 32 Grote = 24 Stüber)

- Marrow pieces; i.a.? 12, 6, 4, 2, 1, 1/2Grote; Stüber; Pennies?

3. after Frisian guilder bill (1 frieze.gulden = 28 rooms)

In addition, the Dutch eagle schillings and deshalf eagle schillings (Silver coins). Large number of pronounced partial coins (face values) that are difficult to relate to one another:

1 Valleys = 1 ½ gulden = 2 ¼ mark = 9 Eagle shilling (also Embarrassing called) = 18 half eagle shillings (also Flindrich called) = 27sheep = 36 Mariengroschen = 54 Stüber = 72 Grote = 316 Oertger = 288 Pennies = 360 Swars (all silver coins, probably also the guilder, only pennies and swarms of copper)
 

Silver anniversary thaler on Count Anton Günther's 82nd birthday and 62nd year of government in 1665, two years before his death (replica 1985). Photos: Martin Teller, April 13, 2006.
 

Danish County of Oldenburg (1667 - 1773)

- Relevant mints: Copenhagen, Oldenburg, others?

King Christian V (reign 1670-1699) 1690 minted in Copenhagen:
- 2/3 and 1/3 (silver)Valleys

King Friedrich V (reign 1746-1766) 1759-1765 minted in Oldenburg:
- 2/3 and 1/3 Valleys, 12-, 6-, 4-, 3-, 2-, 1 1/2, 1- and 1/2 Grote (Silver)
- 4 and 2 penny (Silver, and copper?)

4 Pfennig (silver), 1762. Illustrations: Martin Teller, December 29, 2007.


General: Currencies and coin relations up to the 17th century - in the 18th century - purchasing power table -
Oldenburg Middle Ages - Oldenburg Early Modern Age - Oldenburg from 18./19. century
 

Oldenburg in modern times

(Grand) Duchy of Oldenburg (1774 - 1914)

- Mints: Hanover, Berlin since 1874

Own coins since Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig (reign 1785-1829):

- Gold and Kurant currency, 1 whole (gold)pistol = 5 thalers, possibly double, whole and half pistols as after 1846
- rough curant (Valleys); as a dividing coin, small Kurant (Grote), silver coins: thaler; including 24, ..?, 12, ..?, 4, 3, ..? Grot


Issues under Grand Duke Paul Friedrich August (reign 1829-1853):

Coin Act of 1846, valid from October 1st, 1846:
(Coin rate ratio of 100 Taler small Kurant = 98.7805 Taler new Kurant, or 100 new = 101.234568 old)
- Gold coins (1 whole pistol = 5 thalers), double, whole and half pistols
- Silberkurant (Valleys; 1 thaler = 30 groschen, 2 thalers as customs union coin = 3 1/2 gulden in southern German currency): 2, 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/6 thalers
- Divisional coins in silver (Grot) and copper (Fester) only for adjustment: 6, 4, 3, 2 Grot, 1 Groten (silver); 2 1/2, 1 1/4, 1 1/2, 1 swaths (copper)

1 Grote (brass?), 1850. Illustrations: Martin Teller, December 29, 2007.


Under Grand Duke Nikolaus Friedrich Peter (reign 1853-1900) since 1858 additionally:
Silver groschen (= 10 pfennigs?)

1 Schwaren (copper), 1860. Illustrations: Martin Teller, December 29, 2007.
 

Type of invoice, payment value and coinage 1858

Before gold and current currency (face value = metal value): inPistols for 5 thalers gold, and in ThalersCurant (Conversion value: the pistol at 5 Talers 50 Grot Kurant). 14 1/3 Taler Oldenburger Kurant = 1 Cologne fine silver mark (fixed connection).
Since the Coin Act of October 1, 1846 in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (excluding the Principality of Birkenfeld) and July 10, 1846 in the Jever rule: 72 thalers Grot à 5 Fester, Currency of the 14 thaler foot (as in Prussia, Saxony etc.).

Statutory coinage:
A) in gold: 1 pistol with a face value of 5 thalers gold, double and half pistols according to ratio. 35 1/6 simple pistols = 1 mark in Cologne, from 258 Grän fine gold. - No deviations are tolerated in the fineness, in the weight only up to a maximum of ¼%.
B) Silberkurant in the new national coin since October 1, 1846: pieces of 1 Valleys, ½, 1/3 and 1/6 thaler in the 14 thaler foot. In addition, [customs] association coins of 2 Talers or 3 ½ Gulden South German currency, minted for Birkenfeld since 1840, since the accession of the whole Grand Duchy on 1.1.1854 for the whole state. - Deviation in the fineness of the 2 and 1 thaler pieces at most 1 grain to the mark, in weight at most ½%, for the pieces of ½, 1/3 and 1/6 thaler in fineness no more than 1 ½ gren to the mark Weight at most 1%.
The term Kurant (face value = metal value) applied to all thaler versions, the token coin (face value> metal value) was only used for compensation.
C) Dividing coin: 1. in silver, Pieces of 6, 4, 3, 2 Grot and 1 Groten, 16 Talers from the fine mark; 2. in copper, Pieces of 1, 1 ½, 1 ¼ and 2 ½ swarms, of which 35 grots should weigh one mark. - In copper money, only amounts below 2 grots had to be accepted.

Previous Oldenburg Kleinurant After October 1st, 1846, the legal gold standard was no longer a legal divisional coin, the fixed rate (5 Taler 50 Grot = 1 gold pistol) was canceled. Were mostly 4 and 3 large pieces, allegedly minted according to the 14 thaler foot, actually an average of 14 1/3 to 14 ½ thaler foot. With the law of 1.1.1847, the same applies to the circulation of the previous Oldenburg 24 and 12 large pieces and thatrough curant forbidden.
(Because of different taler feet :) 82 thaler oldenburgisch small Kurant = 81 thaler Oldenburg new Kurant in 14 thaler foot, or 100 thaler small Kurant = 98 32/41 or 98.7805 thaler new Kurant; vice versa 100 thaler new Kurant or in the 14 thaler foot 101 19/81 = 101.234568 thaler small Kurant. [This is already a simplification compared to previous conditions! There was still no question of a clear, easily manageable currency. Original text shortened.]

Equalization of the curant coin values ​​with the corresponding 14 thaler foot coins of Hanover, Prussia and Brunswick. Special tariff for foreign gold and silver coins, foreign currency coins forbidden.

Principality of Birkenfeld 1858

Oldenburg joins the coinage convention of the German customs union states on July 30, 1838 for the Principality of Birkenfeld. Instead of the 24 ½ guilder foot that used to apply there, it is now the 24 ½ guilder foot. Same currency as in Darmstadt, Frankfurt a. M. and Munich: 1 gulden = 60 cruiser à 4Pennies. In addition to the club coin of 2 thalers = 3 ½ guilders (Fl.), Which had been minted for Birkenfeld since 1840, the other silver coins of the 24 ½ guilder foot and the dividing coin foot of the southern German customs union states (27 guilders) were in circulation.

Control measures and weights 1858

For the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, those of the German Customs Union have been in effect since 1854 (see this article at Noback & Noback). The Principality of Birkenfeld belonged to the Prussian Customs Union before [probably since 1830]. For the remaining parts of the Oldenburg region, the sizes of the Hanover Tax Association were used until the end of 1853 (article Hanover at Noback & Noback).

From 1873

Reach introduction of the mark with gold backing in 1873, conversion to Mark in Oldenburg, probably on January 1, 1874: 1 thaler = 3 marks, 1 mark = 10 groschen = 100 pfennigs
- Oldenburg coins: 10 marks (Gold), 2 marks (Silver), Pennies (possibly copper)


Under Grand Duke Friedrich August (reign 1900-1918), large coins were only used silver 5 and 2 mark pieces embossed.

Values ​​from: Fritz Verdenhalven, old dimensions, coins and weights from the German-speaking area, Neustadt. d. Aisch, 1968, pp. 17 - 54. Oldenburg, a local history reference work, compiled by Franz Hellbernd and Heinz Möller, Vechta 1965, p. 423. Value relationships across all types of invoice in the early modern period, partly by Martin Teller (incorporation of the Mark).


General: Currencies and coin relations up to the 17th century - in the 18th century - purchasing power table -
Oldenburg Middle Ages - Oldenburg Early Modern Age - Oldenburg from 18./19. century


Weimar Republic and Third Reich

- Mints: supraregional such as Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Munich, others?

Inflation 1921-22 and abandonment of the gold mark (abandonment of gold cover as early as World War I). Banknotes: Oldenburg emergency money, different values.

Oldenburg emergency money, 50 Pfennig each, top: front, back with local motifs and verses of the Oldenburg song based on the original version by Theodor von Kobbe in 1844. Images: Martin Teller, December 29, 2007.
 

Rentenmark since 1923, Reichsmark in 1924. 1 Reichsmark (RM) = 100Reichspfennig (Rpf.)

Coin denominations and banknote values ​​similar to later in the FRG.


Federal Republic of Germany

- Mints: supraregional such as Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Munich, others?

1948 coin reform, devaluation of the Reichsmark and introduction of the new onemark.
 

A set of DM coins (various politicians on the reverse of the 2 DM coin), images: Martin Teller, December 29, 2007.
 

- Silver coins: 5, 2, 1 marks, 50 pfennigs; 10 DM special issues with different motifs
- Divisional coins: 10 Pfennig = 1 Groschen, 5 Pf. (Brass alloy), 2, 1 Pf. (Copper)
- Banknotes: 1000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5 DM
- 1 mark in gold = 1 ounce as a special mint when changing currency to the euro

Minted between 1948 and 1949 as cutting coins of the "Bank Deutscher Länder", after the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany as "Deutsche Mark". Over the years some changes to coins (new 5 DM piece, 2 DM pieces with different politicians' heads) and notes (first dollar-like, then heads after German paintings, since around 1991 German men and women from the arts and sciences).
 

Old and new 5 DM note, images: Martin Teller, December 29, 2007.


Germany as part of the euro zone

- Mints: supraregional German and EU member states as well as private contract mints

On 1.1.1999 introduction of the Euro as the common currency of initially 12 EU countries (Belgium, Germany, France, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Spain) and three countries affiliated to the currency area (San Marino, Monaco, Vatican).
Since January 1st, 2002 issue of euro coins and notes, the old national currencies have lost their payment function (but remain valid indefinitely in Germany as in most other countries for exchange in euro).

- 1 DM = 10 groschen = 100 pfennigs = 0.511291881 euros (€)
- 1 Euro (€) = 100 Euro cents (ct.) = 1.95583 DM
- Silver coins: 2 and 1 euros
- Brass alloys with Nordic gold: 50, 20, 10 cents
- Copper coins: 5, 2, 1 cents
- Banknotes: 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5 euros
- 1 euro in gold = 1 ounce as a special coinage of some countries when changing currency to the euro


General: Currencies and coin relations up to the 17th century - in the 18th century - purchasing power table -
Oldenburg Middle Ages - Oldenburg Early Modern Age - Oldenburg from 18./19. century

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Counting measurements - length measurements - area measurements - body measurements - weight measurements - agricultural relations - currency units - price relations - government revenues - today's units of measurement