What are the worst learning methods
School and Study: The Five Best Learning Strategies
Psychologist John Dunlosky from Kent State University in Ohio (USA) and colleagues examined around 700 papers in order to assess the usefulness of various learning techniques for school and university. Based on this data too Practice tests for learning methods The researchers ranked it from recommendable to rather obstructive. Highlighting information (e.g. with a highlighter) and repeated reading performed worst. However, according to surveys in the course of study, these are precisely the very common learning methods. However, the Dunlosky researchers rated five other techniques as useful:
1. Test yourself!
The surest way to keep new knowledge is to use it actively play. Explain what you have learned to others and ask them holes in your stomach. This is also where you are most likely to notice what you have not yet understood. Self-tests even work when you don't actually know anything: In one experiment, researchers asked test subjects to explain what they knew about the topic in question before a learning unit. The following lesson stayed with the dry run significantly more than without! Apparently, the mental preparation later helps to embed new information in what is already known.
2. Learn in handy portions!
Learning in bits and pieces over longer periods of time is usually more effective than accumulating a concentrated load of knowledge. So divide your learning workload into as much as possible handy sections and regularly insert test and relaxation phases between the learning units!
3. Ask why questions!
Why does evolution provide an explanation for natural biodiversity? Why are adjectives in Italian sometimes before and sometimes after the noun? Why can't you tickle yourself? Such to the Thinking through, through and lateral thinking stimulated, the answers in question usually stick better. Good educators know that bombarding students with prepackaged answers is of little use. What is the problem? Why is it worth solving? And how could that work? As a rule, learners benefit more from such questions. Many lessons and textbooks, however, offer little incentive to develop independently. One possible reason: it can take a long time to gain insight - giving solutions works faster. But also worse.
4. Know what you don't (yet) know!
Closely related to the why questions is what psychologists refer to as "self-explication". Here, however, the re-drilling does not aim at the learning content itself, but at your own background: What does that have to do with what I already know? Does that remind me of something? How does it fit into my previous knowledge? Where do I still have gaps? One advantage of this method (which children automatically follow): It is activated in this way "metacognitive" knowledge makes it easier to find your way through the information jungle. Knowing what you don't (yet) know helps a lot.
Can you train intelligence?
5. Learn variably!
Reading, writing down key terms, explaining connections to yourself, telling others about it and being queried: A colorful one Mix of methods provides the best guarantee for a completely strengthened memory. As tempting as it may seem to have found the "ultimate" learning technique - diversity usually has a more lasting effect.
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