What kind of bond connects two monosaccharides

Monosaccharides

In this article you will learn Monosaccharides know the building blocks of carbohydrates. In addition to the structure and structure, we will also show you some important examples.

What are monosaccharides simply explained? Take a look at ourVideoto the monosaccharides!

Monosaccharides simply explained

Monosaccharides are the smallest sugar units and thus the basic building blocks of carbohydrates. When monosaccharides get over glycosidic bonds link together, then they can Disaccharides and Polysaccharides form. The general molecular formula for monosaccharides is C.n(H2O)n, being made up of a carbon chain, a Carbonyl groupand at least one Hydroxyl groupconsist.

You can represent monosaccharides with the help of the Fischer projection, the Haworth representation or the Conformational formula. The typical examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, galactose as well as ribose and deoxyribose. They are required as Energy suppliers and as building blocks for the Genetic information (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides definition

Monosaccharides are the smallest sugar units with the general molecular formula C.n(H2O)n. They consist of a carbon chain, a carbonyl group and at least one hydroxyl group.

Monosaccharide structure

You can also use monosaccharides Simple sugar because "sákchar" comes from the Greek and means "sugar". The "mono" stands for "alone". A monosaccharide has the general Molecular formulaC.n(H2O)n, where n 3 is. You can also deduce from the empirical formula that these are the basic building blocks of carbohydrates. “Carbo-” describes the carbon atoms and “-hydrate” stands for the water H2O in the formula.

The Basic structure the simple sugars make up the carbon atoms. So far, a monosaccharide with a maximum of 9 carbon atoms could be described.

SurnameC atoms
Trios3
Tetroses4
Pentoses5
Hexoses6
Heptoses7
Octoses8
Nonosen9

In the table are those Pentoses and Hexoses highlighted as these two are the simple sugars that are used for the human nutrition are important and besides most frequently have been found.

In addition to the carbon atoms, monosaccharides have one Carbonyl group -CO. This can either be at the end of the chain, then the monosaccharide is one Aldose, or bound within the chain, what the monosaccharide is used for Ketosis makes. The names derive from the Aldehydes and Ketones from.

For it to actually be a monosaccharide, there must be at least one more Hydroxyl group-OH be bound. Simple monosaccharides have a hydroxyl group on each of the carbon atoms that do not have the carbonyl group and otherwise hydrogen atoms H.

If the monosaccharide is large enough, the carbonyl group can react with one of the hydroxyl groups. It comes to Ring closure, which consists of carbon atoms and an oxygen atom. Then you call five rings Furanoses and six rings Pyranoses. The carbon atom, which is involved in the ring closure, becomes an asymmetrical carbon atom, the anomeric carbon atom. You can also use the ring shape of the simple sugars as a Hemiacetal to name. But you should keep in mind that the open chain shape and the ring shape in the balancestand.

Simple sugar forms of representation

So far, the structure seems very complex and difficult to represent in a simple form. There are different forms of representation for this. You can best use the Fischer projection, the Haworth representation and the conformational formula.

The best way to set up the open chain is with the Fischer projection There you can determine the chain length, see whether it is an aldose or ketosis and also determine whether it is a D or L shape is. For that you have to do this first Center of chirality determine. While with the simple sugars especially the D shape is available at amino acids increases the L shape. Furthermore, you can also do well Epimers realize these are Isomers where only one of the OH groups is different. The best thing to do is to watch our video directly Fischer projection at.

The Haworth representation helps you determine whether the OH group on the anomeric carbon atom is in - or Position. Monosaccharides can combine to form disaccharides or even polysaccharides glycosidic bonds. With this you specify the carbon atoms via which the monosaccharides are connected. There is also the distinction between - and -Glycosidic bonds. If the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom points downwards, then it is one - and if it is facing up, one -Shape.

Finally, you can also use the Conformational formula use. With it, the spatial structure describe the simple sugars, including the Stereoisomers and the configuration can be represented well.

Monosaccharide examples

The best known example of a monosaccharide is glucose (also dextrose). That's because they are the Main energy supplier is for humans and thus supplies muscles, but also organs, such as your brain, with energy.

Fructose is also a energy supplier, but also part of insulin. Some of the fructose is converted into glucose and used directly. Meanwhile, the rest of the part in the liver is rebuilt so that the body can gain even more energy. The enzymewhich is responsible for the dismantling is the Aldolase B. A gene mutation can cause it to be defective and the body makes one Fructose intolerance off, so it can no longer break down fructose.

Galactose occurs naturally only in lactose, in which Lactose, and not as a monosaccharide. In the body, it is converted into glucose and used.

Ribose and Deoxyribose are also important simple sugars that our bodies consider RNA - and DNA building blocksused.

Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides

As already described, the Monosaccharides around Simple sugar. If two simple sugars are linked via a glycosidic bond, then arise Disaccharides, so Double sugar. Furthermore, even more mono- and disaccharides can be linked and thus Polysaccharides form. You can also watch our videos and articles Disaccharides and Polysaccharides at.

Monosaccharide properties

Are simple sugars colorless and odorless crystals, the most taste sweet. Through her polarity are they water soluble. That is why they are also transported in the body in the blood and get into the through glucose transporters Cells . Because the monosaccharides are small, they can get through too diffusion get into their target cells. There can be glucose in the Cellular respiration , so through Glycolysis , Citric acid cycle and Respiratory chain , to ATP production and can therefore be used as energy carriers.

Furthermore, monosaccharides oxidized are so are reducing simple sugars. While aldoses too Aldonic acids are oxidized, a monosaccharide reacts to oxidation at the other end of the chain Uronic acid. Forms when oxidized at both ends Aldaric acids.

By reduction of a monosaccharide Alditols (Sugar alcohols) like Mannitol or Sorbitol.

Monosaccharide occurrence

Monosaccharides are mainly found in foods. However, they are also part of the RNA (Ribose) and DNA (Deoxyribose). Glucose also often appears as a building block in di- or polysaccharides. For example, you can go through hydrolysis extract glucose from sucrose, i.e. cane sugar. Furthermore, monosaccharides can also through photosynthesis be won. In the process, carbon dioxide CO reacts2 and water H2O under the influence of energy, i.e. at the Light reaction through sunlight, to glucose and oxygen O2.

Monosaccharide foods

Simple sugars are particularly popular in sweet foods, i.e. in fruit, honey and generally in Sweets. But also in vegetables you can encounter monosaccharides, along with other disaccharides and polysaccharides.