What do the Turks think of the Assyrians

Suryoyo Online

The Aramaeans under the Turkish-Islamic rule*

Gabriel Rabo

Why do the Arameans actually leave their homeland and scatter all over the world? Do they emigrate arbitrarily and for economic reasons or are they actually being persecuted by the extradited foreign rulers? These are common questions to ask today. The waves of persecution are not new. Every century there are new black times: if you look closely, the Arameans have been persecuted for millennia by the Assyrians, Persians, Christian Byzantium, the Arabs and to this day by the Turks. The worst genocide of this century was committed by the Turks exactly 85 years ago during the genocide of their Aramaic neighbors, the Armenians. Millions of Armenians and hundreds of thousands of Arameans were mercilessly massacred.

1. The Arameans in the past

The Arameans, who in the past formed the largest majority in the Middle East, have suffered from the rule of Islam and the Turks over the Aramaic homeland until today, because their existence and identity are forgotten there. Your difficult situation depended and still depends crucially on the political situation and is directly related to the religion of Islam. Islam is essentially a public religion, religion and politics are one; Islamic coexistence is theocratic, law is divine law. Gihad, the holy war, is a permanent obligation for every Muslim. All this also applies to the situation in Turkey, where, according to Kemalist national-state thinking, part of the self-confidence of every Turk is that as a Turkish citizen one is a Turk and a Muslim. Since Islam is experiencing a renaissance in the life of the nation and its influence is increasing rather than decreasing, the connection between state and religion in Turkey is strengthening again (1). "The gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire then created discriminatory decrees again from the 17th century. These demoted Christians as second-class citizens. They were not allowed to build new churches, had to (even) mark their houses with dark paint and had (more) To pay poll tax "(2). The Arameans were not seen as "Millet", i.e. as a special religious group with self-administration, neither among the sultans nor among the supposedly democratic Turks. They are also oppressed, massacred and used as scapegoats by the Turks on the one hand and by the increasing numbers of Kurds who are pushing into the country on the other. Since the Middle Ages, the Kurds came as nomads, then as unskilled workers for the Arameans from the mountains to the east, but later developed a kind of feudal system in which each Agha, the tribal chief, had his Christian vassals under him, who owed tribute to him and made his own choice were delivered. Many Aramaic Christians were forced to give up their Aramaic language and convert to the Kurdish religion, Islam. Most of the Arameans, however, opposed the assimilation process of Islamization. Under the protection of the church, they have been able to preserve their cultural tradition to this day. The Kurds often served the Turks as henchmen, as mercenary troops, as they still fight against the PKK as so-called village guards today, and as a convenient murder instrument for anti-Christian politics. Especially under the "bloody sultan" or "red" Abdulhamid II (1876-1908), so named because of the great amount of blood he shed, they were "armed and used against Christians by fomenting religious fanaticism. One A period of lawlessness and arbitrariness began, there were frequent murders, looting of villages and travelers, and famine depopulated the villages "(3). The perpetrators of the day before yesterday have now become the victims of today.

Turkish nationalism and Kurdish fanaticism finally culminated in a genocide of the Armenians in 1914/15 and then, in the same way, of all the Arameans, who were brutally decimated in the process. Suffice it to say that thousands of Christian women with their children threw themselves into the Euphrates and Tigris in order to escape the torments of weeks and months. In the Tur'Abdin area alone, two-thirds of the residents fell victim to the massacres and persecution. Some of them were able to defend themselves mainly in two fortified villages, in Aynwardo, where the Aramaeans even confiscated the Turkish flag (4), and in Hah. In the first village the fight between the Aramaeans and the Turkish-Kurdish troops lasted 60 days and in the last 45 days until the end of July 1915 (5). The eyewitnesses who are still alive today report that people's blood flowed onto the streets as if through the "gutters". The wells and water cisterns were full of the corpses of women and children. In the church rooms, which were probably thought to be safe, heaps of people were killed in toxic smoke and fire. These cruelest and most perverse acts of violence are and will always be remembered by everyone involved. Hence, the year 1915 has been given the names "Year of the Sword" and "Year of Ferman" (of the murder order) and as such has taken its place in Aramaic history (6).

2. The Arameans today and their extermination in Tur`Abdin

2.1. The Arameans without cultural freedom

The Arameans who survived the massacre from other regions then finally tried to preserve their identity in the Tur`Abdin. But this did not last long and was just a dream. All Arameans in Tur`Abdin now live in constant fear for their existence: the religion, culture and language are forbidden by the measures imposed.

Although the Allies asked the Turkish government in Articles 37 and 45 of the Lausanne Treaty of 1923, which determined the borders of Turkey, that the "non-Muslim minorities" must be protected, the Arameans did not obtain any guarantee this time either. Articles 40 and 41 also state that Turkey must grant minorities the right to maintain their own schools and churches and to receive state subsidies for these institutions, as well as cultural freedom and freedom to practice religion. According to the Turkish interpretation, the "non-Muslim minorities" only include the Armenians, Greeks and Jews (7). The Arameans are excluded; therefore, they were not granted national minority status. The standardization of the school system in Turkey was introduced by law as early as 1924, creating a control system over non-Turkish private schools from the outset (8).

Over time, the government banned Aramaic language teaching and closed existing Aramaic schools and seminaries in Tur`Abdin in 1929/1930. The number of clergy and teaching staff has fallen sharply. Because of this, attempts were made to teach the orphans in some monasteries at least something about the liturgy and about prayer. This also failed. Most recently, in 1978, the Turkish minister of culture asked the district governor of Mardin to close the seminary of Deyr-Za`faran, which was used as quarters for orphans who had survived the Holocaust at the time, because there were priests or teachers there again Aramaic education could be in progress and, according to the Turkish interpretation, no other ethnic group is recognized in the Turkish state apart from the existence of the above-mentioned minorities (9). The doors of the classrooms are even provided with a sealed lock to this day. The director, Abbot Ibrahim Türker, was to be sentenced to one year imprisonment if he had not bought himself free. The same happened to the seminary of Mor Gabriel Monastery and other church "secret" village schools where children were taught to pray. Since then, the Seminary of Mor Gabriel Monastery has committed itself to sending the students to the Turkish school in Midyat, where they have to learn the Koran by heart. There are also no other schools for teaching other languages ​​and other religions. Turkey also banned Aramaic books, magazines, cultural organizations and the popular name "Aramaic". Now the Arameans were referred to as "Mountain Turks" - thus not even as a linguistic minority. In 1934 the state replaced all Aramaic family and for several centuries BC. BC preserved village names through meaningless Turkish names. But he also Turkishized many personal names.

The modern Turkish state is secular and tolerant in its theoretical foundations. But the reality is different. The influence of Islam, which determines the behavior of individual people, is also evident in public life. From 1948 the Turkish government introduced Islamic religious instruction in schools all over Turkey, discriminating against and ignoring the Christian religion. Art. 24 of the Turkish constitution of 1982 stipulated that all Christian students must take part in Islamic religious and moral instruction as a compulsory subject in state schools, in which Islamic beliefs are taught and practiced in support of national educational goals (10). The religion teachers also want to urge all Christian students to accept Islam from their side. The state tries to assimilate other peoples. In the far south-eastern highlands of the country on the mountains, in schools or on the streets, banners are shown with the following sentence, shaped by Kemalist nationalism: "Ne mutlu Türküm diyene"," How happy is someone who can say: I am a Turk. "Every morning at the beginning of the lesson, all pupils belonging to minorities are forced to acknowledge that they are Turks. Where does Turkey's obligation to protect and apply? to guarantee the preservation of religious and cultural traditions of the "non-Muslim minorities", in reality or on state paper in a drawer?

The right to religious freedom and the right of parents to determine the religious upbringing of their children themselves are opposed to legal assimilation efforts. This contradicts the European Convention on Human Rights signed by Turkey (11). In addition to these open violations of human rights, the sale of Turkish and foreign-language Bibles was banned in 1985, until the state visit of the former Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker at the end of May 1986. A single print of the Acts of the Apostles remained forbidden (12). So where is religious freedom for the minorities? What should the term democracy mean for Turkey?

2.2. The Arameans in the Turkish military service

Military service was not a matter of course for Christians. Up until the beginning of the 1940s they had to do labor instead in order not to come into possession of weapons, because in the eyes of the Turkish government they were considered enemies of the state and thus godless. Today military service for the Arameans is a life in Islamic foreign countries. Most of the Arameans are living in a Turkish and foreign society for the first time. Here they are oppressed and discriminated against both by the officers and by their fellow soldiers because of their quickly conspicuous Christian names and their religious affiliation, which is noted on the identity papers. Most of the time, colder and uncomfortable places in the country are designated as military places for them. No Christian can become an officer despite a highly qualified training that would enable Muslims to have a very good position in military service. According to the military service regulations, no Christian is allowed to assume a higher position, because on the one hand he is viewed as a traitor to the country at all, on the other hand he is not circumcised. Circumcision is a distinctive feature in Islamic society. The uncircumcised Christian is impure in the eyes of the Turks and a "Gavur" (godless). When the Christians enter the military barracks, they are immediately checked to see whether they are actually not circumcised. If not, torture was used to try to force her to be circumcised, or in extreme cases, the circumcision was actually performed. Christians cannot make a career, not even in public offices, such as policemen, judges, etc., at most as mayors in a village or town where the majority of the population is Christian. But there they live in constant danger of being shot (13). Even in court they have little chance of winning a lawsuit (14).

2.3. The property of the churches

The guaranteed property of the churches and monasteries is not considered to be expandable. In 1956, when the land register was revised, the government declared the documents of all church-owned land to be invalid, so that they are now considered abandoned property. Only traditional parishes or pastors of the respective churches can use land and money for certain purposes. If there is no pastor left or if the community has dissolved, the property falls to the tax authorities (Turkish: Vakif) without compensation (15). This was the procedure, for example, with funds, houses and land belonging to the Mother of God Church in Diyarbakir and with the library of the Patriarchate of the Syrian Orthodox Church in Mardin, which is world-famous due to its very old manuscripts. Another example makes it clear that a few years ago the government confiscated the very old biblical code on parchment found in the church at Midin and the numerous manuscripts discovered in a monastery in the province of S'eert (16). The respective church as a whole may not lay claim to the property of the individual churches. When the parishioners move away from their traditional village or district, nobody is responsible for the old church building. No new congregation can be founded in the new residential area, "since the establishment of new associations with religious objectives is prohibited according to the principle of secularism," said the former German Consul General Leuteritz in Istanbul (17).

2.4. A record of the Aramaic sacrifices in recent years

The Arameans have been systematically persecuted and decimated since the early 1980s. You have got caught between the fronts of the Kurds and Turks. The aim of this persecution is none other than the expulsion or annihilation of the Aramaic people in Turkey. According to the magazine Mashrek International Secret resolutions were passed in 1980 by the Islamic International Council in the Pakistani city of Lahore to destroy all Christians in the Middle East by the year 2000. Kenan Evren, the former Turkish President, also took part in this conference (18). The goal of the Islamic Council is actually being enforced through various state and civic measures in Turkey.

Since then the Turkish government used the so-called Kurdish "village guards" as their paramilitary units and as murder instruments also for the secret organization of the Islamic holy war or the Hisb-u-Allah ("Party of God") has commissioned the Kurdish population to act against the PKK, they are a potential danger for the Arameans and abuse the power that accrues to them. They have power over life and death, they beat, arrest and shoot everyone arbitrarily. The organization of the Hisb-u-Allah primarily pursues ideological goals, namely a "Christian-free Turkey". With threatening letters and public insults from clergy, they ultimately urge the Arameans to leave the country; if they don't, they will be shot (19). In the struggle between the military and the Kurdish village guards on the one hand and the PKK on the other, who in some cases demand extortion of protection money, the Arameans have become their "target". These groups are interested in the land of the Aramaeans and want to persuade the villagers to give up and flee through blackmail.

The victims' balance sheet has increased month by month. Between 1990 and the end of 1994 alone, 30 Arameans, eight of them in 1993 and three in 1994, were killed by Kurdish village guards and the PKK. The last victims were intellectual personalities: Hanna Aydin, Mayor of Hah, Yakub Mete, District Mayor of Midyat, Sükrü Tutus, Lord Mayor of the City of Azak and Dr. Edward Tanriverdi, the last Aramaic physician in Midyat. Some of those killed were shot in cold blood by families in their homes by Kurds living in their villages. These included women, children, the blind and pregnant women. In two families, this happened when the killers were given something to eat and drink from. However, some were also shot on the way home when they had just attended the service.Most of them were shot in the fully loaded minibuses on the way back to their Aramaic villages. The rest of the victims were killed when their cars hit mines. They were not only killed by the Kurds, but also by the soldiers and the police. Such renewed tragedies of murder, looting and discrimination fatally remind the Arameans of the genocide of 1915.

3. Summary

Looking back at the beginning of this century, the Aramaic people suffered a lot under the Ottomans or Turks. The Christians in general were at their mercy, so to speak, and served them as slaves. If one would look at the period of 80 years, the number of Aramaic inhabitants in Turkey is very much reduced: they were massacred and displaced. But their churches were also destroyed or converted into mosques. The villages and towns have been depopulated from their native inhabitants. The big cities like Adana, `Ayntab, Mar`as, Malatya (Militene) (20), Adiyaman, Urfa (Edessa) and Diyarbakir (Amid) with their villages have been depopulated by their Aramaic indigenous people. A large part of the Edessans were then expelled by the Turks to Aleppo in 1924 immediately after the establishment of the new republic, where they are now a large city district (Hai al-Suryan) form. Today nobody thinks - in spite of some still retained Aramaic names - that there were once Arameans or Christians in the cities mentioned. Most or almost all of the Aramaic-speaking residents of Qamishli (Syria) and the surrounding areas emigrated from the Tur'Abdin and found protection under the French mandate. Nothing can be said about the exact number of Aramaeans in Tur`Abdin and other regions before and after the Holocaust. Gallo Shabo, who wrote about the massacar in 1915, reports that around 250,000 Aramaeans live in Tur`Abdin and the surrounding area (21). Likewise, you cannot give anything precise about the number of those killed. The Patriarch Ephrem Barsaum (then Metropolitan) protested to the British government in 1919 about the genocide of the Arameans from 1914/15 to 1918 and presented them with the following statistics (22) of killed Arameans (excluding Eastern Arameans!) And destroyed villages and churches :

Diyarbakir: villages 30, families 764, persons 5379, churches 5 and clergy 7; Silve: D 0, F 174, P 1195, K 5, G 1; Lice: D 10, F 658, F 4706, K 5, G 4; Derik: D 0, F 50, P 350, K 1, G 1; Siverek: D 30, F 897, P 5725, K 12, G 12. Virensehir: D 16, F 303, P 1928, K 1, G 0; Urfa: D 0, F 50, P 340, K 1, G 0; Bitlis: D 12, F 130, F 850, K 1, G 0; S`eert: D 0, F 100, F 650, K 1, G 2; Sarvan: D 9, F 283, P 1870, K 4, G 4; Garzan: D 22, F 744, P 5140, K 12, G 9; Biseri: D 30, F 718, P 4481, K 1, G 1; Pirvet: D 15, F 282, P 1880, K 1, G 1; Mardin: D 8, F 880, P 5815, K 12, G 5; Savur: D 7, F 880, P 6165, K 2, G 3; Nusaybin: D 50, F 1000, P 7000, K 12, G 25; Cizre: D26, F 994, P 7510, K 13, G 8; Kerborane: D 24, F 508, P 3500, K 5, G 2; Midyat: D 47, F 3935, P 25830, K 60, G 60.Summary: villages 346, families 13,350, people 90,313, churches 156 and clergy 154.

The number of families living in Tur`Abdin and the surrounding area in 1915, 1981, 1994 (23)

Nusaybin: 200.0; Helva 40,0; Doger 50,0; Mharken 15, 20,?; Hvetle 20, 10,?; Girkesamo 35.0; Selhumiye 50, 3,?; Tilhatun 50.0; Gidahol 10, 0; Girseren 20, 2,?; Bayaze 50.0; Leylan 15.0; Hazna 15.0; Seruc 30,0; Girsafe 40,0; Grebiye 16,0; Kanak 50,0; Kavali 18,0; Bazaar 10, 0; Tilhasan 15.0; Tilcihan 15, 3,?; Gremira 70, 21, 0; Tilminar 10, 0; Tilakup 10, 0; Gündük (sükrü) 50, 70, 9; Tilsihir 10, 0; Mare 50,0; Midyat 1400, 400, 110; Arbo 50,24,0; Harabale 70, 88, 49; Kafro tahtoyto 30, 23, 5; Habab 40, 12, 0; Badibe 40, 9, 0; Sederi 10, 15, 1; Harabemiske 10, 28, 0; Salah 40, 15, 2; Enhil?, 135, 8; Hapsis 100, 33, 1; Arnas 70, 28, 0; Mzizah 70, 56, 8; Kaferze 160, 42, 15; Aynwardo 200, 93, 8; Messenger 300, 21, 0; Kafro eloyto 80, 52, 1; Yardo 70, 27, 1; Binkelbe 30, 0, 0; Color 40, 15, 0; Deyrulumur (persons) 33,?, 73; Hah 100, 52, 20; Bakisyan 130, 63, 15; Estrako 20, 0, 0; Deyrkube 10, 4, 2; Seers 20, 0; Bsorino / Sare 200, 63/15, 24/1; Midin 500, 109, 62; Temerze 20, 0; Zinavrah 20,0; Betishok 20,0; Hedel 20.0; Kafshine 25.0; Garise 10, 0; Zaz 200,53,0; Dyrsalib 70, 11, 6; Arbaye 30,0; Ahlah 4, 0; Kerburan 500.0; Manure 40,0; Celik 10, 0; Zengan 30.0; Gercus 30,0; Hasinkef 100.0; Dunes 40, 0; Armun 10, 0; Marvaniye 10, 0; Barlat 10, 0; Balans 5, 0; Derheb 1, 0; Beglit 4, 0; Sufrianasa 1,0; Idil?, 120, 20; Cizre?, 0; Espis 300,0; Aynseri 60,0; Babaka 60.0; Emirs 250,0; Ceriha 20.0; Handak [eloyto] Fokani 50,0; Handak [tahtoyto] tahtani?, 0; Tilbel and Dike 200,0; Hanaviye and Mirazer?, 0; Kevkep?, 0. Sum: 1915: 6937, 1981: 1749; 1994: 399 families.

Since 1980 18 villages of the Aramaic indigenous people have been totally depopulated only in Tur`Abdin (without Bohtan). The last villages in 1993 were Zaz, after its mayor had been captured and tortured by soldiers with a few men and women, and the village of Hassana (Bohtan), from which all of the remaining 197 Arameans were expelled by the military in November 1993. Some of the already depopulated Aramaic villages and their churches as well as cemeteries have meanwhile been destroyed by the Turkish soldiers and Kurdish village guards (24).

On the basis of the data mentioned, it can then be determined that from 1915 to 1981 and from 1981 to 1994 77% of the Syrian-Aramaic Christians disappeared from their homeland and fled to the diaspora in Europe, Australia and the USA. Tur`Abdin, the core area of ​​Christianity and Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus and the apostles and where there were seven dioceses 80 years ago, today has only one bishop, about ten monks and 15 nuns in four monasteries and 2662 (with Mardin ) or 13,898 people (in Turkey) (25) in 23 villages (Tur`Abdin) or 36 in all places in Turkey (26).

How can the Arameans protect their lives between the Turkish and Kurdish fronts? How and with what methods can the Aramaic people preserve their Aramaic language, culture and identity? Or how and where can young people secure their future? If no answer can be found to these questions, it could happen that the remaining Aramaic villages and cities of Tur`Abdin, Tur Izlo and the surrounding area will be forgotten as the homeland of the Aramaeans.

A statement by Justice Minister Mehmet Esat from 1938 shows clearly and without a doubt the reason for their persecution: "This country is a country of the Turks. Anyone who is not of purely Turkish origin has only one right in this country: the right to be a servant, the right to be a slave "(27). Does this show the democratization of the Turkish state and its respect for human rights?



* This work is the slightly revised, supplemented and updated version of the second part of a lecture that I gave at the following locations: on March 23, 1990 in the Gabrieli-Gymnasium in Eichstätt; on February 24th, 1992 at the Evangelical Educational Center in Ingolstadt; on May 25, 1993 in the Evangelical Student Community (ESG) and on November 8, 1993 in the Theological Monastery in Göttingen; on December 10th, 1993 at the St. Basilius d. Size for Eastern Church contacts of the Diocese of Hildesheim in Hanover and on May 19, 1995 in the "Brücke-Köprü" - meeting room for Christians and Muslims in Nuremberg. It was published with both parts under the title Kristne i Tyrkiet in Danish in the magazine Tidehverv, vol. 69, no. 4, April 1995 (Ribe / Denmark), 75-79.
(1) Without a doubt, it can be compared very clearly with the work and movement of the welfare party (refah partisi) under the party chairman Erbakan.
(2) Kuster, R., / Köppel, H.U., The Syrian Orthodox Church, in: EAÖS 8, Bern 1989, 34.
(3) G. Yonan, Assyrians today, culture, language, national movement of Aramaic-speaking Christians in the Middle East, Hamburg 1976, 16.
(4) Cf. Aydin, Hanna, The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, Mor Ephrem Monastery, Glane / Losser 1990, 114 f.
(5) According to the then nine-year-old eyewitness Aziz be-Xaco, who now lives in Vienna as a refugee. Many Arameans from the surrounding villages tried to save their lives in the old castle fortress of Hah, called "qusro". Unfortunately for some it failed, e.g. 365/6 villagers from Zaz were shot in cold blood on the way to Hah by their Muslim neighbors, who had promised them rescue assistance, and thrown into a large cistern (Syr. Hauto).
Sheick Fathullah of `Aynkaf (d. 1948), possibly a descendant of the mhalmoye Arameans who converted to Islam in the 16th century, was the one who probably brought the armistice in both villages but also in the whole of Tur`Abdin. He was an opponent of the genocide of the Arameans and condemned this crime by the Kurdish-Turkish troops. We owe special thanks to him and to Çelebi Agha von Haferken, who lived in Mzizah and who stood by the Arameans. (Cf. Farman, 144 f., 153 ff.)
(6) For more on the genocide of the Arameans see: H. Suleyman Henno, Gunhe d-suryoye d-tur`abdin, Fate [s] strikes of the Syrian Christians in Tur`Abdin 1915, Mor Ephrem monastery of the Syrians, Glane 1987, [ Text Syriac]; ders., Farman, [Turkish translation]; ders., Seyfe, [text Syriac]. On the genocide of the Armenians: Tessa Hofmann (ed.), The genocide of the Armenians in court, the Talaat Pascha trial, = series Pogrom 1006, Göttingen 31985; ders., The crime of silence, the negotiation of the Turkish genocide against the Armenians before the Permanent Tribunal of the Peoples, = Pogrom 1012 series, Göttingen 1985; ders., (Hrsg.,), Armenien - Genölkermord, Verftrieb, Exil, = Pogrom Topics 1, Göttingen 1987.
(7) Cf. epd. Documentation 49/79, 58.
(8) See Yonan, G., in: Pogrom No. 64, 41.
(9) Cf. also now they attacked the Arameans, our citizens, in: Hürriyet, 9/28/1978, 1: 8.
(10) Cf. Anayasa - 1982 Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasasi, Alkim Verlag, 24f.
(11) Cf. Hengsbach, F., Chairman of the Commission of the World Council of Churches of the DBK, in: Kolo Süryoyo, No. 65, 1989, 19.
(12) Cf. Leuteritz, Karl, The Christian Minorities in Turkey - Legal Status and Actual Situation, in: Hi-storisch-archäologischer Freundeskreis e.V., Rundbrief, Berlin 1991, 20.
(13) Think of the case of the mayors Michael Bayru of Azag, Circis Yüksel of Kelleth and that of Bnebil.
(14) The relatives of those shot dead in the Görgen family from Midyat, Bulut from Anhil and Aykil from `Arnas have lost their trial. Yes, while still in court the defendants threatened to shoot the Christians responsible for their indictment as well, without the judges reacting to these threats. Rather, the proceedings ended with an acquittal for the perpetrators. Later they threatened all Arameans in pedestrian areas in Midyat and the surrounding area with pogroms and murder: "... if you don't get out of here". (See Sh. Yonan, in: Pogrom 155, 1990, 48f).
(15) See Leuteritz, K., loc. Cit., 23.
(16) See Hürriyet, September 28, 1978, 1, photos 8.
(17) Leuteritz, K., loc. Cit., 21.
(18) See Mashrek International, No. 9, Dec. 1984, London; Ikibine dogru, No. 8, January 1989, Istanbul, 38.
(19) The threatening letter was published in the Syrian magazine "Hujada", No. 173, November 1993, Söder-tälje / Sweden, 33.
(20) In the 13th century there were around 60,000 Syrian residents and 56 churches in the city, see Dulabani, Ph.H., The Patriarchs of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, Mor Ephrem Monastery of the Syrians; Glane / Losser 1990, 137.
(21) Cf. Gallo Sabo, in: Seyfe, the Christian massacre in Turkey from 1714-1914, Hengelo 1981, 32.
(22) Farman, Jan.
(23) From 1915: Farman, 177 ff; 1981: Validan, Isa, in KSyr, No. 19, 1981; 1994: Travel report on the situation of the Aramaeans in Tur`Abdin (June 1994), manuscript by ADO
(24) Cf. Turkish military destroys the old Syrian village of Bote (Turkish: Bardakci), ADO leaflet from August 25, 1993.
(25) Cf. Eilers, Ralf, Leichte Beute - Assyrer in der Südostürkei, in: Pogrom, No. 170, April / May 1993, (Göttingen), 15-18, 15.
(26) Travel report on the situation of the Aramaeans in Tur`Abdin (June 1994), ADO manuscript.
(27) Gestrein, H., People without a lawyer, The Kurdish Question in the Middle East, Freiburg 1974, 42.

Web Master: Gabriel Rabo
Published in: Kolo Suryoyo 105, (Sept.-Oct. 1995), 161-169
Updated: 10/11/2000
Copyright Suryoyo Online 2000
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