What are the 9 axes in machining

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3-axis and 5-axis machining is a machining process just like automatic turning and long turning.

The expressions 3-axis and 5-axis indicate the number of directions the cutting tool can move. This can be an X-, Y- or Z-axis as well as an A-axis and a C-axis as shown in the example below. The 5-axis machining and 5-axis simultaneous machining are both machining methods in which multiple sides of a workpiece can be machined in a single setting.

In the 3-axis machining the cutting tool of the machine moves transversely to the 3 linear X, Y and Z axes (see Fig. 1 below). 5-axis milling can e.g. be done so that the A-axis rotates around the X-axis and the C-axis around the Z-axis (see Fig. 2 below). Whether the machine has an A- and a C-axis or some other rotating axes depends on how the machine is designed and has to be operated. There is always an axis that rotates the table or the head and this can often be rotated infinitely, in the example below it is called the C-axis (see Fig. 2). At a 5-axis simultaneous machiningmanagement can move all 5 axes at the same time.

Which of the above two methods is used depends on the complexity of the workpiece to be machined. With 5-axis machining, the workpiece can be attacked from many angles and therefore this is a method that is used for workpieces with multi-sided machining. With such workpieces, higher precision and better positioning are achieved, since the workpieces do not have to be moved from one setting to the next, as with 3-axis machining.

Both machining methods can be carried out on a 5-axis machine. There are also machines that only perform 3-axis machining. The machines can process all types of metal and plastic.

5-axis machines are different depending on the construction, size and operation of the machine. In order to be able to operate the machine, one must have, among other things, good three-dimensional thinking and spatial imagination, and also be able to use a modern CAM programming system.

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EXAMPLE OF A 5-AXIS MACHINE WITH A- AND C-AXIS