What does simulation mean in mathematics

When planning a new production line, the factory planning department planned to connect two successive process stages, which are to be housed in different workshops, with one another using a driverless transport system. The capacity calculation showed that the transport could be accomplished with three vehicles. Despite the high utilization of the transport system of around 97%, the management initially did not want to approve any further vehicles due to the high acquisition costs of the vehicles and the tense financial situation during the launch of the new product. On the contrary, it was even relieved to be able to use the transport system so efficiently, especially since all downtimes for maintenance and repairs had already been taken into account in the static calculation.

The simulation, however, revealed that an additional vehicle would pay for itself after just one year, because the high capacity utilization of the vehicles would have required a disproportionately large amount of storage space at the end of the first process stage (see graphic). Due to the capital-intensive runway components on the one hand and the high capital commitment due to the workpieces waiting there, on the other hand, the storage space would have become a considerable cost factor that would have been in no relation to the acquisition and maintenance costs of another vehicle (see table). If you had only relied on the static calculation, the total costs would have been about twice as high.