Why do place names end in tons

Author: Hartmut Geissler

That the Place names on "-home" The general belief in research is that in our region they regularly originated from a connection with a personal name and can be traced back to Franconian foundings. Which names of the Merovingian era were the godfathers is a difficult and perhaps never entirely clear problem.

"Ingel (n) heim": In the annals of the Carolingian period, the place "Ingilinhaim" or similar is written, at least always with an "n" in the middle, until the late Middle Ages. The variants of the various z. Some of the much more recent copies of this first mention in the Annales regni Francorum for the year 774 read: Ingilinhaim, Ingelheim, hengilinheim, ingilinahim, Ingilingam, ingelhaim and ingilinheim.

Generally an "Angilo, Engilo" or "Ingilo" is assumed to be the namesake. The presumed mother of Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, was called z. B. Engilfrit. Schmitz refers to Förstemann's name book with corresponding evidence. The etymological interpretation is controversial. There is indeed the root Ingo or Ing (wio), which was a Germanic name for a god and forms the beginning of many names that begin with Ing-: z. B. Ingo-mar, Ing-rid, Ing-olf, Ing-var; they are all composed of two meaningful words. But what does the second part mean - ilo or something similar?

A little place with a name "Ingelbach" there is in the Westerwald in the Verbandsgemeinde Altenkirchen and a "Ingelfingen" in the Hohenlohe district.

Schmitz, p. 111: "Be that as it may, one thing is certain ... that the place name Ingelheim as a whole must be interpreted as the 'home of Engilo'."

Medieval folk etymology explained below Sebastian Munster in the 16th century to the readers of his Cosmography the name like this: Because according to the legend a "Angel"In a chamber of the Ingelheim Palatinate Charlemagne the"Sword of faith"With which he should fight successfully against the unbelievers, the place is called"Engelenheim“.

This legend comes from the time of Charles Renaissance in the 12th century, as Charlemagne canonized on December 29, 1165 in Aachen at the instigation of Chancellor Rainald von Dassel had been. In connection with the name question, there is of course the question of the beginning of the immediate royal rule in Ingelheimer Grund. Because if, according to Schmitz, "Ingel (n) heim"If the independent founding of a Frankish nobleman was around the 5th century, then it is unclear how and when this property became royal property between the 5th and 8th centuries. Schmitz therefore adheres to the thesis (and I agree with that an; Gs) that it is quite possible that the settlement was named after a Frankish leader who was settled by the king on domain land, that the Ingelheim area had been a Frankish royal estate since the end of Roman rule Accumulation of such place names on -heim in the lower Selztal towards an extensive simultaneity of their origin (p. 118).

(Free-) Weinheim (in the oldest form 1112 - a mention from 772 refers to another Weinheim) is called "Wi (e) nheim " handed down, Saalwächter, BIG 13, p. 9): One suspects a (Frisian?) chief named here Wio or Wiho as namesake (but also elsewhere Wine or Woe = Farmer, planter; BIG 39, p. 98). A "Wiho“Is passed down as the first bishop of Osnabrück, born in Friesland, died on April 20, 804 (?). His name is said to mean "fighter" (his feast day: February 13th).

It should come as no surprise that Frisians could also have settled at Ingelheimer Rheinhafen; Frisian long-distance trade merchants dominated the navigable rivers of the 7th century and formed z. B. On the banks of the Rhine in Mainz, there was a separate settlement, surrounded by palisades, in the area of ​​today's Hilton Hotel. Holger Grewe therefore believes it is likely that the columns for the Ingelheim Palatinate were not unloaded in Weinheim, but in Mainz, because their onward transport from there on useful roads was easier to manage than through the deep drifting sand dunes between Weinheim and Nieder-Ingelheim . The Danish king Heriold could also have landed with his ships in Mainz in 826, not on the flat bank of Weinheim, because he was baptized in St. Alban near Mainz anyway.

In grave field I in Frei-Weinheim - on the site of the former station of the Selztalbahn - which was actually no longer used at the time, a cremation grave was found - completely isolated - and that means a burial custom that is otherwise in Franconia nowhere found, while it was still common in the Lower Rhine-Frisian and North German regions. The remains of the fire were buried in a so-called Badorf spherical pot, which is dated to the 8th or 9th century (after Astrid Wenzel p. 28; details there).

Franconian place names of surrounding communities in the first year of their written mention:

Winternheim: 937 "Winter home

Sporkenheim: 1128 "Spurchenheim

Ockenheim: 823 "Huccunheim"

Algesheim: 766 "Alagastesheim

Heidesheim: 762 "Heinsinisheim

Wackernheim: around 790 "Uuacharenheim

Bubenheim: 766 "Bubinheim"

Elsheim: 1144 "Ilgisheim "

Hilbersheim: 1108 "Hilbridisheim

Incidentally, the same phenomenon occurs with Hilbersheim as with Ingelheim: a double place, differentiated by Low- and Upper-.


Gs, for the first time July 28, 2005; Status: 23.01.21