You can use porcelain tiles as flooring
The porcelain stoneware tile occupies an honorable niche among the floor coverings in the hardware store. A material that externally imitates natural stone can transform both living spaces and open spaces and give it a touch of sophistication and nobility. Laying porcelain tiles with your own hands is a simple process that anyone can master.
Ways and methods of laying porcelain stoneware
Porcelain tiles presented on the building materials market are characterized by different sizes and structures. There are more than a dozen, but the most common are:
Laying methods for porcelain stoneware
Combined options with tiles of different sizes and textures are interesting. When making combinations, it should be borne in mind that light shades of the coating can visually expand the room. But when decorating small rooms, one should not “abuse” wide and large ornaments, as the size of porcelain tiles, even in light colors, can visually reduce the space.
Install porcelain tiles in two ways:
- On a prefabricated double floor. For this purpose, the supporting structure is assembled from the connected frames, on which the floor covering is then placed. A rather complicated method is used only by skilled craftsmen.
- Glue application. A cheaper method that doesn't require any additional structures to be created. A method that is simple to perform can easily be mastered by anyone with only basic design skills.
Installation of porcelain stoneware raised floors
The order of work
The independent laying of porcelain tiles can only be carried out in the temperature range - not below 0 ° C and with a humidity of not more than 80%. Failure to comply with the conditions will affect the quality of the adhesive base of the coating. If you are working in damp rooms, make sure that the waterproofing is done in advance.
In order to determine the required volume of material, it is advisable to make a plan of the surface on which the granite will be placed. Then determine how many tiles are required for one square meter of area and calculate the volume of material. This corresponds to an increase of 10% to take into account possible calculation errors and accidental knocks on the tiles during transport. A great way to calculate everything in detail is to use our. When buying porcelain tiles, it is worth checking the consistency of the picture and the identity of the colors of the party.
Of materials, it is also worth buying:
- Primer for floors;
- Silicone sealant.
A deep primer will not only help remove dust from the floor, but it will also increase the adhesive surface area of the adhesive on the sub-floor.
Among the tools for laying tiles you will need:
- Cutter and tile cutter;
- Alcohol markers for marking tiles;
- Building level;
- Tape measure and pencil;
- Rubber mallet;
- Cross markings
- Scraper with rubber nozzle;
- Profile for outside corners.
You will also need a notched spatula to apply the composition. When choosing a tool, pay attention to the dimensions of the tile. Therefore, for laying products with a size of 10 x 10 cm, it is advisable to use a spatula, the tooth length of which is 8 mm.
Porcelain tiles are a lively representative of materials that require the arrangement of a perfectly even substrate. The work surface must be free of cracks, voids and dirt. If the substrate has a shiny surface - it must be sanded, small imperfections - leveled, non-waterproof coating - must be washed off. In addition to removing dust and dirt from the floor of the room, it is also necessary to use a vacuum cleaner to clean the walls of the room.
Tip: Pay special attention to the joints of the floor and walls, as well as places where mold and signs of mold appear. It is not enough just to cover them with cement. Affected areas of the coating must be removed by hollowing out a whole piece.
If these conditions are not met, then you should be prepared for cracks to form on the surface of the granite during operation due to the difference in stresses.
Concrete screed is an ideal substrate for porcelain stoneware.
Laying porcelain tiles on a wooden floor is only possible if all rotten trunks have been removed beforehand and the loose parts are additionally fastened with self-tapping screws. It is extremely undesirable to use nails to fasten wooden elements, as this type of fastening weakens over time.
Regardless of the type of substrate, the surface of this type of floor must be primed. It is applied in a thin layer and fills small pores in the soil.
Selection and preparation of the glue
For gluing the porcelain stoneware tiles, it is advisable to choose adhesive mixtures based on polymer components. They are able to reliably and permanently bond the sub-floor to the coating. These can be compositions for gluing porcelain stoneware, large-format tiles, natural stone and glass mosaics. ()
Mount tiles on glue
Some craftsmen use cement mortar for this purpose, but, as practice shows, the tiles cannot be laid firmly enough.
In order to get high quality binder, you should adhere to a number of recommendations:
- Be sure to observe the proportions indicated on the packaging. Do not experiment with additives to the mixture.
- The dry mixture should be poured into a container with water. This will prevent lumps from forming.
- Stir the ingredients until the liquid mixture is uniform in texture.
Attention: Please note that the adhesive only retains its properties for 3-4 hours. The cured mixture cannot be diluted with water and must not be used, as it would otherwise impair the quality of the coating and lead to its deformation.
Laying of material
The technique of laying porcelain tiles with your own hands does not require special skills. The main thing is to adhere to the sequence of work and adhere to the recommendations of the masters.
Level test with level
- The adhesive is applied to the substrate in small sections and distributed with a notched trowel. The thickness of the glue is 5 mm. The coverage area should be roughly the same as 1-2 tiles. To simplify the process, the surface can be pre-labeled in sections with a marker or chalk, focusing on the selected laying pattern.
- Some glue is also applied to the area of the wall next to the floor. Some tilers recommend applying the composition to the back of the tile.
Video: laying ceramic granite
- Lay the tile in a horizontal plane, which depends on the construction height. You start lying from the corner of the wall and walk towards the front door. It is recommended to use gloves to work with porcelain tiles so that the sharp edges of the material and the rough adhesive do not damage the delicate skin of the hands.
The size of the seam between the tiles is determined by the interior design, as this plays an important role in creating a complete picture of the coating. On average, the size of the suture cross can vary from 2 mm to 8 mm. Very often seamless laying of porcelain stoneware is also used if this is the case. Such styling cuts a fine figure, especially in large rooms
Danger! Although the porcelain stoneware coating is durable and wear-resistant, the tile itself is a brittle material that can easily be damaged if improperly handled during installation. To protect against brittleness, manufacturers therefore cover the tiles with paraffin. The easiest way to remove it is with detergents or by carefully scraping it off with a spatula.
Cutting porcelain tile is not much different from cutting tile. The subtleties and nuances are described in the video:
- Reinforce the fixation by tapping the surface of the tile with a rubber mallet. It is advisable to immediately remove any excess glue that gets into the tile grout. When it hardens, it's harder to remove.
- You wait 1-2 days for the composition to gain the necessary strength. During this period, you will not be able to place any stress on the tiles.
- The tile joints are overwritten after they have been freed from dirt residues. The joint solution corresponds to the color of the tile coating or, in contrast, is applied to the cladding with a rubber trowel that does not damage the surface.
The composition is arranged diagonally to the seams. Excess solution is carefully removed with a damp sponge. Even small styling errors can be compensated for. ().
- The joints of the walls with the floor and the output of communications are filled with silicone compounds.
If you want to lay porcelain tiles on a “warm floor”, you cannot connect and start the system until the tile adhesive is completely dry, i.e., when the tile adhesive is completely dry. H. not earlier than 5-7 days.
You can start regular floor cleaning no earlier than 2 weeks after laying. When washing floors, do not use acidic cleaning agents that can damage the color of the grout.
Laying porcelain stoneware: video
Porcelain stoneware: photo
Many modern floor coverings exhibit superior performance and durability. Among them are the granite tiles, which can be suitable for decorating any room. Thanks to a wide variety of shapes, sizes and colors, you can choose the perfect option for every room. Even an inexperienced person can do the laying of the porcelain tiles with your own hands, if you want.
Why is porcelain stoneware?
The choice of this cladding material is made for a number of reasons. The benefits include:
- Resistance to mechanical and chemical effects;
- Water resistance. Since the material does not absorb moisture, you have no fear that it will lose its appearance and swell after a certain period of operation.
- Frost resistance. The laying of porcelain stoneware is therefore carried out both inside and outside the building;
- Resistance to temperature fluctuations;
- Long lifetime;
- A wide range. The stylistic and color design of the room does not matter. There is sure to be a suitable option for every room.
Danger! It is possible to finish the floor with porcelain stoneware of various sizes. The universal material is 600 x 600 mm tile, but other models are also presented in the manufacturers' catalogs.
Main and edge tiles
Choose a styling scheme
There are several ways to put porcelain tiles on the floor. Depending on the size of the tile, its shade and shape, you can choose a scheme that will highlight the advantages of the material and space.
Before deciding how to lay porcelain tiles on the floor, you should familiarize yourself with the possible design options. The following options are considered to be the most common:
- Traditional (direct);
- Herringbone pattern;
- With a shift.
Which option is preferred depends on the area of the room and the size of the tile itself. When creating a layout diagram, it is important to consider the size tolerances that a product will have. Because of this, the actual size of each item will be different up or down from the declared size. However, the deviation is not that significant, and therefore it is not difficult to compensate for it in the future by choosing a suitable layout.
The most common way. Tiles are laid in straight rows. It is important to achieve parallelism of stacked rows. Suitable solution for square or rectangular tiles. Often used material in different colors.
Danger! This is a quick and easy option that a person can do without special training.
To achieve the desired result, keep the following in mind:
- The absence of manufacturing defects on the surface, which are immediately noticeable when installed directly;
- High quality execution of all steps: inaccuracies and irregularities are noticeable;
- Choosing a seamless ceramic tile.
A difficult option that anyone with the basic skills of such operations can turn into a reality. In order to achieve an aesthetic result, it is important to correctly align the diagonal axes along which the tile will be laid. Suitable for small cladding materials.
Porcelain tiles are decorated with diagonals. But before you start laying the tile diagonally, check if you can lay it yourself.
Danger! Laying the tiles diagonally aligns the porcelain tiles, hides irregularities and curvatures in the floor and visually expands the space.
The rules assume that the tile is at a 45 degree angle. In this case, a square tile will be easier to cut than a rectangular tile or other options. You get to the styling, it is cut squarely in a diagonal direction.
The floor device begins with the formation of the first row. It consists of a whole tile, the length of which is equal to the length of the diagonal cutting line. The second row consists of ceramic triangles set off from the hypotenuse. Subsequent lines are horizontal. It is important to observe the principle of diagonal arrangement.
Outwardly, this method is similar to masonry. The interface turns out to be original, so they often resort to the reverse layout. In this case, a rectangular monophonic tile will look better, which will hide the small defects on the surface.
This method is suitable for the hallway or kitchen, the location of the tiles will help avoid monotony and transform the space. Those who laid the tiles know that all the elements are arranged in horizontal rows. At the same time, an even shift of the side seams is guaranteed.
Another original way. The appearance of the laid material is similar to parquet. The floor looks interesting and unusual. Choose a rectangular tile for the Christmas tree layout. The method can be implemented using the same material or with an appendix. The last option involves using mosaic tiles or elements of the same size but a different color.
Advices! To get a nice floor, consider buying a rectangular tile with imitation wood. With a tile similar to natural stone, such a floor covering looks unnatural.
It creates an original pattern on the surface thanks to the use of tiles of different sizes. A detailed diagram for the entire area of the room is drawn up before installation. This will help calculate the amount of material required for each type. The diagram shows the dimensions of each element and the location of the seams. The characteristics of laying granite in this way make this method relevant for small spaces.
Danger! Manufacturers offer ready-made model kits, including a special mesh and all materials.
If you don't know how to properly disassemble a tile, check out these tips:
- With a small area of the room, you should refuse to buy a large tile: it will visually make the room smaller.
- To increase the size of the tile, it is laid across to make the room wider and longer;
- The cross-sectional pattern unites the zones into a whole.
- A single drawing helps highlight a specific area.
- Light colors visually enlarge the room.
If you are interested in laying porcelain tiles on the floor, be sure to read the recommendations of professionals and watch video tutorials. This will help avoid the typical mistakes people often make without special training.
The technology of laying porcelain tiles on the floor involves successive steps. By carefully observing the recommendations, the formation of a high-quality floor covering that can withstand operational loads can be achieved.
Porcelain stoneware is laid on the prepared floor.The high demands placed on the foundation require a responsible approach to the preparatory phase. The surface should not be smooth, clean and even. It is recommended to use a self-leveling mixture.
Danger! The floor is gradually prepared under porcelain stoneware. If the laying of porcelain tiles is carried out with your own hands on an old tile, then it must be degreased with caustic soda.
To reliably fix the veneering material, you need a dry surface. To do this, the substrate is thoroughly primed and then the primer is allowed to dry. If it was planned to install underfloor heating, all installation and commissioning work is completed before the tiles are attached.
After the floor has warmed the base well, the heating is switched off. Tiles are only glued to the cooled surface. The next time the heating circuit is switched on, the glue is completely dry. This takes up to two weeks, depending on the composition and thickness of the layer formed.
If porcelain stoneware is made on a wooden base, it is worth using a special substrate that will eliminate the periodic changes in the size of the wooden base. Otherwise, the decorative material may crack. How much does a certain type of substrate cost? It is worth clarifying when the facing material was purchased. The final amount of finishing costs is actually calculated after all of the necessary items have been purchased.
After preparing the plinth, place the plates throughout the room according to the selected scheme. For fastening, use a suitable composition specially designed for porcelain stoneware.
If you know how to put porcelain tile on the floor, it is easy to do all of the work yourself. To do this, you should familiarize yourself with the existing layout schemes and carefully study the sequence of steps. In this case, porcelain stoneware floors are carried out quickly and efficiently.
Porcelain appeared on the building materials market not so long ago, but it immediately became popular due to its excellent properties and high performance. Laying porcelain stoneware is not the most difficult process, it is available for independent execution, but it requires a serious approach and care.
Types of porcelain stoneware
When choosing porcelain stoneware, it is important to consider where and under what conditions it will be used. There are several of its most popular types:
Porcelain stoneware is a very strong material that is suitable for laying in any room. However, you should not use glazed and polished if high loads are to be expected. These coatings can be erased with prolonged exposure, their color will fade.
Adhesive and tool selection
Porcelain tiles have a low porosity and a very low coefficient of moisture absorption. Because of these properties, the design has several features that must be taken into account. It does not fit normal cement mortar. Special adhesives based on a cement-sand mixture with the addition of polymers are used for installation. They increase the adhesion and give the adhesive good elasticity. Mix the adhesive mixture with water exactly according to the manufacturer's instructions, remembering that the mixture is added to the water and not the other way around.
In addition to the glue, you need to stock up on the tools necessary to do this:
- nozzle for mixing the solution;
- notched spatula;
- tile cutter or "grinder";
- rubber scraper;
- plastic crosses.
Every type of porcelain stoneware makes high demands on the substrate on which it is to be laid. It should be smooth, without cracks, scratches, protrusions. It is very important that the surface is hard.
This is especially true when porcelain tiles are placed on a wooden base. In this case, the delays should be strong and exposed strictly horizontally, the draft floor is firmly attached to them. It can be poured with a self-leveling mixture or leveled with thick sheets of plywood.
Regardless of which material is used for the substrate, it is coated with a primer in two layers. This will remove dust from the surface and increase the adhesion of the adhesive.
Do-it-yourself porcelain stoneware
After all the preparatory work has been carried out, all the necessary materials and tools have been purchased, you can start work. If the tile is laid directly or in a checkerboard pattern, work begins at the corner of the room, with the first row being laid along the wall. If a multi-colored ornament or complex styling is used, then go to it from the center of the room. It is advisable to draw a plan directly on the floor, according to which the tile will be laid, and to sign the names of the flowers. Otherwise, you may make a mistake in the process and not notice it right away.
The process of applying granite to the floor is not very complicated. The main thing here is not to rush and follow the order:
- The glue is applied to the base with a spatula on an area of two or three tiles. Since porcelain stoneware is a heavy material, the glue cannot be applied too thick as the tile simply sinks into the solution under its own weight. A small amount of glue should also be applied to the tile. This is necessary so that no cavities subsequently form underneath. The glue is leveled with a spatula and the grooves are held with the serrated side at an angle of up to 60 degrees to the base.
- The tile is pressed down firmly until excess glue emerges from underneath. This is an indicator that the solution is evenly distributed and that there are no more gaps. The excess is removed immediately with a rubber spatula, otherwise the solution will harden and this is very difficult to do.
- By evenly tapping the ends of the tile with a hammer, it is leveled, leaving a few millimeters at the seam, where plastic crosses are inserted in full depth. This will prevent the seams from corroding until the solution solidifies. If the design is seamless, then there is no need for crosses and the tiles are pressed tightly against each other. After laying several tiles, their horizontal level is inevitably checked from the level in different directions.
- Wait 24 to 48 hours after laying the entire surface. This time is required for the mortar to harden completely. Only then can the joints be grouted. This is done with a rubber spatula in the direction across the seam. Any excess is removed with a damp sponge. The color of the grout is chosen depending on the design. It can be in the color of the tile and contrast with it.
Porcelain floors are ready for use in 6-7 days, after which you can connect the "warm floor" system.
Porcelain tile itself is a durable material, and during operation, especially if it is used as a floor covering, significant stresses caused by the operation of the floor do not cause damage. However, the full use of all possibilities of this material is only possible with proper installation. Therefore, the correct installation of porcelain stoneware is an extremely important and responsible work step, which is largely responsible for further successful operation.
As always, every job starts with a project. In this case, it is necessary to determine the layout of the granite. The required number of tiles and their dimensions depend on it. The fact is that you can lay the tiles in different ways, creating a real mosaic on the floor, and porcelain tiles of different colors can be used. Below are pictures that show some possible examples of how to lay granite, as well as the number of tiles required and their dimensions.
Of course, the above examples do not cover all possible installation options for porcelain stoneware, everything is determined by your imagination. You can just do and put the granite counters in rows on the floor. However, this is everyone's personal choice.
The most important thing is different here. The laying method must be determined - whether the laying of porcelain stoneware tiles is carried out without seams or whether the usual laying method with seams is used. This choice depends on which porcelain tiles you need to buy - unidirectional or regular.
In addition, it is necessary to estimate the required number of tiles per 1 m2 and determine the required amount of porcelain tiles, and then increase it by (10-15)%. This is due to the fact that when laying porcelain stoneware, an additional loss of consumption, faulty tiles, as well as cutting and laying the tiles are possible.
Of great importance is determining the laying technique - the thickness of the adhesive, the width and direction of the joints (straight, zigzag, etc.) between the tiles or the choice of whether to lay the granite without joints, as well as the amount of work involved in preparing the Surface. The result of this study should be a series of tasks where the desired surface is porcelain stoneware.
Having gained clarity with the required number of tiles, you can proceed to the selection of the material yourself. When laying porcelain tiles on the floor in the bathroom, hallway, kitchen or toilet, it is better to use tiles with a rough surface. Such tiles are less likely to slip and get injured.
First of all, you need to pay special attention to two things - the caliber and tone of the tile. Caliber means the deviation in the geometric dimensions of the tile. For example, a 300 x 300 tile can be 298 x 298 and 302 x 302 (rounded values). This is due to the different properties of materials (clay) that come from different deposits.
As a rule, the manufacturer selects tiles of the same size and collects them together, so that in one package there were, for example, tiles of the size 298 x 298. That's the caliber.
And if the laying of porcelain stoneware in a confined space is somehow still possible (the compensation for the tile size results from the seam thickness), laying tiles of different calibres with large differences is simply impossible. And often there is a situation when the tile of the required caliber is missing, because the factory does not specially make such dimensions, they are obtained from the finished product when choosing.
Therefore, when choosing tiles for laying porcelain tiles on the floor, it is necessary to choose tiles of the same caliber and take them with an edge, because finding the same thing again may just be impossible.
Another, no less important feature when choosing tiles for laying granite is the selection of tiles by color. Like the caliber, this is associated with differences in the properties of the starting components. As a result, the color of the tiles from different parties will be different, and this must be taken into account when choosing a tile.
When manufacturers complete a batch of products, they select them by shade. However, laying porcelain to achieve the desired surface quality (the absence of stains of color) should be done with tiles of the same shade. The selection of the tiles of a tone is made when buying.
Which tool do you need
A good quality tool is required for high quality job performance. Porcelain tiles are no exception. This requires:
- glue thinning tank;
- drilling with glue nozzle;
- tape measure (ruler) for making the necessary measurements;
- level to control the horizontality of the laid tiles;
- putty knife.
Some of these tools can be seen in the photo.
First of all, it is necessary to save the glue. When laying porcelain stoneware on the floor, it is important to ensure that porcelain stoneware does not absorb moisture. Hence when working with special glue. The use of cement mixes is therefore impractical as they do not provide strong fastening of tiles. To ensure the required adhesive strength, the adhesive manufacturers add special additives to the composition that increase the adhesion to the surface of porcelain stoneware.
In order to lay the porcelain stoneware tiles smoothly and beautifully, to create permanent gaps between each tile, special crosses are used when laying, which are removed after laying.
When the tile is fixed, the formed seams are filled with special mortar.
Surface preparation for laying tiles
If you look at the device of porcelain stoneware floors, there is nothing complicated about them. A layer of glue is applied to the concrete surface (or another layer - drywall, plaster, boards), on which granite is laid. However, in order to ensure a high quality and permanent coating, the surface must be prepared.
In this case, the deciding factor is not how to put the porcelain tiles on the floor, but where to place them. If the ground is uneven, it must be leveled first. To do this, it is necessary to remove the protruding parts of the floor in order to repair the seams, cracks, indentations and depressions. Any impurities should be removed.
After the floor has been prepared according to the recommendations described, it must be primed. Use a primer suitable for the floor material.
While this does not apply directly to surface preparation, the surrounding area must be assessed prior to installing porcelain tiles. It is not recommended to carry out tile-laying work at temperatures below 5 ° C, especially if the work is carried out outside the building. Also, do not carry out any work when the heating is switched on, especially underfloor heating.
Laying porcelain stoneware
After completing the preparatory work, you can start laying the porcelain stoneware tiles, as determined during the planning phase of the project. Yes exactly. This is achieved in particular by the fact that the installation starts in the middle of the room and is symmetrical to it. The line of symmetry is best marked with a string. This is done so that the entire tile is in the center of the room and the cut-out tile is on the edges.
First, a solution is applied to the surface on a small area.
Before laying porcelain stoneware, the glue is leveled with a smooth spatula, it must be held at an angle of approx. 45 ° to the substrate. The resulting flat surface is then treated with a notched trowel as shown in the photo.
You can lay the tiles as shown in the photo below. If the tile is covered with a protective layer applied by the manufacturer to preserve the granite during transportation, it must be removed with washing solutions.
Once laid, the tile needs to be removed slightly from the adjacent one, while keeping the gap between the tiles free of glue, unless, of course, seamless porcelain tile laying is used.
The use of crosses ensures an even space over the entire surface. The distance must be at least 3 mm.
The laid tiles are checked by the level for correct laying and, if necessary, smoothed.
After all the tiles have been laid, the glued surface must be held for three to four days until the adhesive has hardened.
When the adhesive layer has hardened, start grouting the seams. The color of the grout depends on the width of the seam and the color of the tile. As a rule, experts recommend using a gray grout because it is less dirty. A rubber spatula is used for grouting, which is used to grout and remove the remains.
Before grouting, make sure that the joints do not contain any adhesive residue. Grout with water is diluted to the desired consistency and applied to a lined surface. When the grooves are full, the excess is removed with a spatula with a sponge.
Wipe the finished surface with a sponge moistened in a washing solution, being careful not to wash the grout from the seams. After two weeks, the surface can be washed with the usual cleaning agents. Additional information on laying porcelain stoneware - video
Where can I put tiles
On the wooden floor
Porcelain tiles cannot just be laid on the concrete floor. Using special techniques and technologies, it is possible to lay porcelain tiles on a wooden floor.
To do this, the coating is first removed and the delays set strictly horizontally. They are impregnated with antiseptic compounds. Expanded clay is poured into the upper level between the lags and then, with the help of self-tapping screws, a “rough” plate is attached with a gap of five to ten millimeters.
The seal is made on the "rough" floor. Then you can make the base yourself, on which tiles will be laid in the future.
Furthermore, the use of two different options. There is a metal grille on the sub-floor, which is attached with self-tapping screws. Then lighthouses are erected, along which a cement screed is poured, creating a horizontal plane. Self-leveling mixtures can also be used. When the screed has hardened, you can mount porcelain.
In another embodiment, a so-called dry screed is used. In this case, moisture-resistant drywall, gypsum fiber board or a cement-bonded chipboard is placed on top of the waterproofing. The panels are arranged in several layers and attached to the floor with self-tapping screws. Then the surface is primed in several layers.
Porcelain tiles can be placed on similarly prepared surfaces. When choosing the adhesive, special attention must be paid to whether it is suitable for drywall work.
It is entirely possible to lay porcelain tiles on top of plywood. With this option, plywood should be placed on the lags with a small step. The thickness of the plywood layer must be at least 30 mm. Plywood must be firmly attached to the lags and fit over the entire surface. The resulting surface is polished, dirt is removed and the seams are closed.
After that, the plywood is primed twice, and when the second layer of primer has dried, tile laying can begin. In this case, it is necessary to use the polyurethane adhesive that is used when laying parquet.
Cost of laying granite
As already mentioned, despite the excellent properties of porcelain stoneware, the quality of the resulting coating depends to a large extent on the installation. Experienced tilers know all the subtleties and nuances of the process and deliver high quality work. The cost of laying granite on the floor depends on the amount of work.
The usual practice of giving discounts when increasing the volume of work. When installing porcelain stoneware, the price for large quantities (in square meters of area) is charged per square meter. meters less.
Of course, this is a matter of personal choice, whether to go into business on their own or use the services of masters. In addition, it is sometimes difficult to find skilled craftsmen who can perform complex jobs efficiently. And yet, given the durability of the porcelain stoneware coating, the cost of purchasing materials and the cost of installing the porcelain stoneware may not be prohibitive compared to them.
In order to trust the masters to lay porcelain tiles, the price of which depends, among other things, on their qualifications and the available recommendations, the total effort and the stages of implementation must be presented. This way you can control the process and get the result you want.
Laying tiles, despite its external simplicity, is fraught with many nuances and subtleties of the process. Still, you can take full advantage of the possibilities of porcelain stoneware and get a coating that is unique in its technical capabilities and, with its beauty and originality, leaves a bright and unforgettable impression.
Nowadays there are different ways to refine floors. Mostly there are loose floors, tiled surfaces and porcelain stoneware. Wooden floors are rarer as they are not suitable for all rooms. Nevertheless, porcelain is considered to be the most durable coating. How it differs from tiles, what are the advantages of such a finish and how to lay porcelain tiles with your own hands, you will learn from this article.
Advantages of porcelain stoneware
Porcelain stoneware, due to its properties, is used not only for interior, but also for exterior decoration. The advantages of undoubtedly porcelain are:
- resistance to high and low temperatures;
- wide range of shapes and colors.
How to choose a coating
The floor is the basis of any room, so you need to carefully choose the cover. The properties of the coating depend on the room in which you are laying the granite. For example, the floor in the hallway should be water-repellent and resistant to chemical influences, while for the kitchen the main criterion will be durability and insensitivity to frequent temperature extremes. The floors in the bathroom should have a non-slip coating, and in the living room - simply must have a representative view.
It should be noted that in any of the above cases, a porcelain stoneware tile is suitable. In addition, it can be used for floors in garages, workshops and boiler rooms. Often for such rooms, matte rough porcelain stoneware is used, which has increased strength and minimal slippage.
The first thing you need to do is prepare the ground. Porcelain tiles are quite demanding in the subsurface, so it is necessary to approach this stage responsibly. The surface should be flat, smooth and clean. A good option would be to pour in a self-leveling mixture.
Tip. If, for whatever reason, you decide to lie on the old tile, it is imperative to degrease it with caustic soda.
Before laying, the surface must be primed and allowed to dry. Since porcelain stoneware does not absorb moisture, it should be laid on a completely dry surface.
If you are laying a warm floor, you need to warm it up and turn it off after laying it. Next time you can't turn the floor back on until the glue has completely dried. This is about two weeks.
If the porcelain stoneware is installed on a wooden floor, it is necessary to purchase a special sub-floor that will prevent the consequences of expansion and contraction of the wooden floor. Without a substrate, there is a high probability of damage and cracks. When laying on a wooden substrate, it is advisable to use elastic one-component adhesives.
However, the best option for the foundation is a concrete screed. It should be even, clean, and dry.
Tip. When laying porcelain tiles on drywall, this should be primed to reduce moisture absorption.
Before laying the panels, make sure that all tools and components are in stock. In addition to the tile itself, you will need a spatula and crosses. The size of the trowel teeth depends on the tile size. The bigger the tile, the bigger the teeth. Crosses are needed to reinforce the seams. The sizes of the crosses are also different.
Before laying, you need to decide on the scheme. In addition to the classic longitudinal laying of tiles, there are many other options to choose from.
Once you have decided how you want your floor to look, it's time to start marking. To do this, you need to find the center. Laying the tiles from the center will give you the most aesthetic and symmetrical appearance of the floor.
After applying the marking, you can proceed to the direct laying of the tiles. The main rule is the use of special glue. Normal tile adhesive cannot be used under any circumstances, as porcelain stoneware is very heavy and does not absorb moisture.
The back of the tile must be cleaned and glued in strict compliance with the manufacturer's instructions. Keep the required time, and then apply glue to the floor. The adhesive layer is usually 4-5 mm. Apply glue evenly and in one direction. If the adhesive is not applied evenly, voids can form under the panels, which can cause future damage.
As a rule, no glue is applied to small tiles, but only to the substrate. For large tiles, experts recommend applying glue to the back of the slab. This increases the adhesion, but also leads to an increased consumption of glue.
Glue is applied alternately for each tile. The first tile is laid on the edge according to the marking and carefully placed on the glue. Use a rubber mallet and level to level large tiles. After the first tile is laid flat, apply glue for the second tile and repeat all the steps from the beginning. The tiles are aligned with seam crosses relative to one another.
We have already figured out how to lay the tiles, but sometimes some questions arise during the laying process.
After laying, the tile can be smoothed for 10 to a maximum of 15 minutes. After this time, the adhesive will begin to harden and the displacement can affect the adhesion of the tile.
During the laying process, you will inevitably have to take breaks, so it should be remembered that the tiles laid an hour ago will be a little lower. This is a natural shrinkage. Usually it does not exceed 1mm, but it can be seen. Therefore, when laying new tiles after the break, remember that if you align the new tile with the old tile without considering this nuance, you can get a small gap after shrinking.
After your tile has dried (it usually takes two days to two weeks), you can move on to the final stage - grouting. Make sure that the adhesive solution is completely hardened and clean the seams of any adhesive residue and dirt. If the floor is large, then it is better to conditionally divide the room into several parts.
You can buy grout in the store. Grout is available in different colors and has different properties, such as: B. Resistance to household chemicals, moisture resistance, and more. Be careful when choosing.
The mixture is applied with a special diagonal grater. Do not use metal spatulas to grout - this can affect the appearance of your tile. After grouting, immediately remove the residue with a damp cloth.
High-quality adhesive is made on a cement basis with the addition of synthetic resins, polymer additives and the necessary mineral plasticizers. Nowadays, asbestos and other harmful substances are no longer added to the glue, so the glue for porcelain stoneware is environmentally friendly.
For high efficiency, the adhesive must have a sufficient degree of adhesion (adhesive strength).
The larger and thicker your tile, the higher the fixing properties of the adhesive purchased should be.
Another criterion to look out for when choosing an adhesive is resistance to extreme temperatures. This is especially true in cases where the tiles are laid in rooms without constant heating. You can determine frost resistance by looking at the numbers next to the Latin letter F. The larger the numbers, the higher the frost resistance. Two-component adhesives are considered to be more resistant to extreme temperatures.
Also, pay attention to the service life of the glue, since it is during this time that you will have to lay the tile after preparing the glue.
Porcelain stoneware comes in many colors and sizes. With tiles of different sizes and colors, you can create complex patterns that will add individuality and originality to your floor. In the following schemes, you can combine tiles of the same color or different shades. However, there are a few subtleties that you need to know:
- the size of the tile influences the visual assessment of the room: a large tile visually reduces the area, while a small one increases the area.
- to "expand" a room, it is best to place the tile across, while the tile that is designed to visually elongate the room.
- By using a continuous drawing, different areas of the room can be combined into a whole.
- the use of a single drawing is suitable to demarcate the zones of a room.
- a light floor optically enlarges the room.
Attention If the tile is laid at an angle of 45 °, the edges should run parallel to the room diagonal.
How to cut porcelain stoneware
When laying tiles with your own hands, the question of cutting arises. Due to the strength of the tile, it cannot be cut with a simple glass cutter like tiles can. It is therefore necessary to use a special tile cutter, tile cutter, grinder and machine for wet cutting of tiles.
- Tiles are cut in a straight line with the tile cutter. More expensive versions of this tool have clamps that allow you to fix the tile at a certain angle and cut it diagonally.
- Small manual tile cutters are not equipped with such mechanisms, so cutting becomes a little more difficult.
- Often use a grinder with a diamond wheel on the stone. But this tool has a small drawback - heating and dust.
- The wet tile cutting machine works dust-free and without heating the tiles, but it comes at a rather high price because it is mainly used by professional builders.
- A diamond crown for porcelain stoneware helps when a round hole needs to be drilled in the tile.
Using porcelain stoneware for floors is considered by many experts to be the best way to carry out repairs “for centuries”. However, this process is more time-consuming than laying normal tiles. In general, laying porcelain tiles with your own hands is not impossible. Follow the rules and you will succeed.
Laying porcelain stoneware: video
DIY porcelain stoneware laying: photo
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