Why were the Acadians independent

Colonial Policy of European States



Under the leadership Henry the Navigator has been Portugal to the first European colonial power with colonies in South America, Africa and Asia. Also Spain operated after the end of the Reconquista an excessive expansion policy, so the Spaniards almost completely conquered, among other things Middle and South America (except for Portuguese Brazil). This inevitably led to conflicts with Portugal, which, however, im Treaty of Tordesillas were settled by dividing the world into two spheres of interest. In 1580 Portugal fell to the Habsburg rulers of Spain for dynastic reasons.

Portugal and Spain


Lost until 1640 Portugal its independence, sank to the Spanish province and lost parts of its colonial empire to the emerging Dutch. In contrast to most other colonial powers, Portugal was able to hold some of its colonies until the 1970s, only the Carnation Revolution ended the Portuguese rule in Africa. The last Portuguese colony was in 1999 Macau to the People's Republic of China returned. Spain lost most of his as early as the 19th century Colonies in Central and South America, the last Spanish colony to become independent was the Western Saharawhich became autonomous from Spain in 1975.


Netherlands


With the independence of Netherlands of Spain this too began to enter the colonial competition. Dutch trading companies joined forces during the struggle for independence Dutch East India Company together. This was endowed with extensive rights through state charter (e.g. maintaining its own army). In 1606, shares were issued for the first time by a company for financing purposes and the shareholders were accepted as partners. Erected on April 6, 1652 Jan van Riebeeck on behalf of the Dutch East India Company on Cape of Good Hope a supply station and began the colonization of South Africa.



From the early 17th century onwards it was Dutch East India Company also the dominant power in Indonesia, then the Dutch East Indies. In the 19th century they were Netherlands the third biggest Colonial power Behind Great Britain and France. For a time the Dutch were also the masters of the Kasbah of Agadir, which is clearly documented by an inscription with the year 1746 above the main portal of the fortress.

It is: Vreest God Ende Eert Den Koonig - Fear God and honor the king.


France


The French colonialism arose primarily from competition with England / Great Britain. French explorers and sailors like Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain toured North America and founded the colonies New France and Louisiana. in the Seven Years War However, France had to attack the entire colonies Great Britain resign and became involved in Africa and Asia. In the 19th century, France was the second largest colonial power in the world after Great Britain.


German Empire


The small number of German Colonies and Protected Areas at the end of First world war and the Colonial times is based on the fact that Germany only began colonizing in the 19th century. While other European powers began to gain colonies overseas as early as the 15th century, the German states did not appear as colonial powers for a variety of reasons. Just Brandenburg-Prussia sought colonial possession and trade overseas at the end of the 17th century. Emigrated Germans founded settlements overseas that are sometimes referred to as German colonies. After the end of the First World War, according to the Treaty of Versailles all colonies are surrendered to the victorious powers.


1. Morocco crisis


The First Morocco crisis (1905-1906) emerged after an alliance between France and Great Britain the French influence in Morocco had secured (Sudan Treaty 1899). France's position led the German Reich because of the feared impairment of his economic interests in Morocco to internal tensions between the imperial government and the emperor. At the repeated insistence of the Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow gave Kaiser Wilhelm II. and visited Tangier on March 31, 1905 demonstratively to meet the German demand for a say in Moroccothat focus on the Madrid Convention of 1880 relied to emphasize.


Algeciras Conference


In the Algeciras Conference (Spain) from 1906 could German Empire the factual takeover of the Moroccan markets France, which would have contradicted the applicable treaty, nevertheless its isolation became visible, especially since its claims at the conference only from Morocco itself and on the international stage of Austria-Hungary were supported.


2. Morocco crisis


The Second Morocco crisis went down in history under the name "Panther's Jump to Agadir". 1911 was on personal orders Kaiser Wilhelm II. ordered the gunboat "Panther" to Agadir after French troops had occupied Fez and Rabat. The gunboat “Panther”, which arrived on July 1, 1911, was replaced after a few days by two other German warships, the small cruiser “Berlin” and the gunboat “Eber”. The aim of the German action was the assignment of Colonial areas of France to the German Empire in return for the acceptance of French rule over Morocco as a result of the first Morocco crisis. Threatening gestures such as the dispatch of the “panthers” were intended to emphasize this demand.


Morocco-Congo Treaty


The crisis finally ended on November 4, 1911 with the Morocco-Congo Treaty settled by the German Empire on his claims in Morocco renounced and instead with part of the French colony French Equatorial Africa (New Cameroon) was compensated. The territorial gains were only a fraction of what the German government had aimed for. This crisis intensified the foreign policy isolation of the German Reich in Europe.

The picture opposite shows a meeting of the Emperor Wilhelm II. with his chancellor Bernhard Prince von Bülow and the Chief of the Secret Civil Cabinet of Emperor Franz Joseph I (Austria-Hungary) by Valentini on board the "Hohenzollern"1908 in Kiel.


Protectorate of France


After the conquest Algeria tried from 1830 France, its influence on Morocco to expand further. In 1843/44 the war broke out, which ended with the defeat of the Moroccan troops. As a result, Morocco became the bone of contention for the competing European powers. At the beginning of the 20th century, in the course of this development, France faced the German Empire: The two followed Morocco crises, the settlement of which has already been mentioned. Just one year later, the country became a protectorate in the protectorate treaty of November 1912 French Morocco and Spanish Morocco divided in the north; the city of Tangier received in 1923 as Tangier zone international status. Formally, the Sultan remained ruler of Morocco.


independence


Full independence from France and Spain got the land 1956. Only that EnclavesCeuta, Melilla and Sidi Ifni (until 1969) remained in Spanish ownership. 1957 took Mohammed V. the title of king. After his death in 1961 his son followed him as Hassan II to the throne, who from the beginning aimed for a course of western orientation with strong ties to France and the Europe of the later EC. The tensions with the independent Algeria led to the Algerian-Moroccan border war in 1963. In the politics of the whole of Arabia, he tried to find a mediator. On July 23, 1999 (shortly after the death of Hassan II) his son followed him as Mohammed VI on the throne. Announced in March 2011 Mohammed VI proposed constitutional reforms in response to the events of the Arab Spring. Morocco is to be transformed from a constitutional to a parliamentary monarchy.