Why does typhoid have leukopenia
from ancient Greek: typhos - fog
Synonyms: Typhus abdominalis, abdominal typhus, typhoid fever, enteric fever, parential fever
English: typhoid fever
typhus is a notifiable systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi(Salmonella enterica ssp. Enterica Serovar Typhi) is caused.
The name typhus used to stand for various febrile diseases in general (at the time when spotted fever, typhus and its causative agent rickettsiae had not yet been discovered). In the German-speaking world, typhus comes first for the typhus abdominalis described here.
The disease is widespread in some parts of the world, especially Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. If left untreated, it can lead to death. Typhoid pathogens spread mainly through unsanitary preparation of food and contaminated water.
The main symptoms of the disease are high fever (over 40 ° C), tiredness, fatigue, headache and a relatively low heart rate (relative bradycardia in fever), also known as Faget's sign.
In addition, constipation and sometimes breathing difficulties often occur at the beginning. In the later course of the disease, the constipation decreases and diarrhea increases ("pea stools").
Typhoid usually begins insidiously and after a step-like rise in fever leads to fever continua, during which the consciousness of those affected is often clouded. The name of the disease is derived from this fact.
In typhoid fever, a splenomegaly is often found due to septic colonization, accompanied by roseoles on the abdominal wall. The tongue of typhus sufferers is often gray-yellow.
In typhoid fever, in contrast to most other bacterial infections, leukopenia is found in the blood count, but it is shifted to the left. There is also eosinopenia.
5 Transmission and incubation period
The pathogen is usually transmitted via a faecal-oral route. This can be the case with food that has been fertilized with faeces or otherwise contaminated. Insects that come into contact with faeces can also carry the pathogens on.
The average incubation time is about 10 days, but this can vary greatly (3-60 days) in individual cases.
The anamnesis and clinic offer important suspicious factors. The pathogen can be detected in different phases of the disease from stool, urine or blood (blood culture). A diagnosis can be made serologically through the detection of specific antibodies. A titer of at least 1: 100 or a four-fold increase in titer in the course of the disease speaks for an infection.
Typhoid therapy is antibiotic. As a rule, ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins of the 3rd generation (e.g. cefotaxime) are used. Antibiotic resistance is becoming more and more common in endemic areas, which can make therapy very difficult. The antibiotic therapy is flanked by symptomatic measures such as antipyresis (e.g. with metamizole).
Despite the healing of the typhoid, sick people can become salmonella permanent excretors.
8 Vaccination and prophylaxis
A typhus vaccination is one of the recommended vaccinations of the STIKO in Germany. However, it does not offer complete protection. Therefore, hygiene should be taken into account when traveling to risk areas.
9 Obligation to report
In Germany and Austria, suspected illness, illness, and death from typhoid fever must be reported in accordance with the Infection Protection Act.
After discharge, the sick person is asked to take repeated stool samples by the responsible health department. Typhus patients are only cured after 3 normal stool samples.
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