Should be included in this sentence

Parts of the sentence rules

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The rules of grammar - parts of sentences

Sentences (grammar with rules)

How do you rearrange parts of a sentence?

A set consists of several parts. The parts that belong closely together are called clauses. These parts of the sentence can be rearranged. You can find out which parts of a sentence link belong together with the conversion sample.

Example for a changeover sample:
Chris goes to the cinema in the evening. (4 parts of a sentence) (Chris is emphasized)
Chris evenings go to the cinema. (4 parts of a sentence) (To the movies is emphasized)
The Chrisins cinema goes in the evenings. (4 parts of a sentence) (in the evening is emphasized)

Emphasize parts of the sentence

Depending on which part of the sentence is in front, the emphasis of the sentence changes.
Sentences usually consist of several words. A sentence element can only be one word.

Example: Karlist the pupil. (3 parts of a sentence)
The student is Karl. (3 parts of a sentence)
Nobody looks for the book in the closet. (4 parts of a sentence)

Exercises for clauses

Subjects (grammar with rules)

A sentence consists of several parts. The parts that belong closely together are called clauses. One part of the sentence is the subject. It can consist of one or more words.

One finds a subject with the question "Who or What?". With whom? one asks about people, with what? one asks about things.

Subjects can be nouns (the house, the pen) or pronouns (me, you, he, she ...).

Examples of the subject

A sheep runs in the meadow. What running in the meadow? A sheep.
Jonas listens to the radio. who listen to the radio? Jonas.
It is cold. What is cold? It.

What can a subject be?

  • The subject as a noun: The candies taste delicious.
  • The subject as a pronoun: We talk for a long time. You play chess.
  • The subject as nominalization: Chatting is exhausting.
  • The subject as a proper name: Olaf has a cough today.

The subject in the nominative

The sentence completion in the nominative (Subject) occurs in completely different sentences.

  • Statements. Example: The sun is at its zenith.
  • Prompt phrase. Example: Jenny, give me the book!
  • Question: What did you do today?
  • Subordinate clause: annoying when Tom does nonsense again.

A subject usually consists of a noun. But also a pronoun or a group of nouns can represent the subject in the sentence (part of the sentence in the nominative):

The house is on the outskirts.
She took the task very seriously.
Students from the Ossietzky School took part in the competition.
Police officers, firefighters and helpers were at the scene of the accident.

The subject of the sentence is always in the nominative and you can find it with the question "Who or what?". With whom? one asks about persons (she, he, we, the girls, Mrs. Hansen ...), with what? one asks about things.

Exercises for the subject

The four cases

Nominative 1st case, genitive 2nd case, dative 3rd case, accusative 4th case

Exercises for the subject

Predicates (grammar with rules)

The predicate always comes second in the center of the sentence. It can consist of a one-part or multi-part verb form. The verb in the sentence has to adapt to the subject. To do this, the verb of the sentence is conjugated accordingly.

I rune regularly 1000 meters.
You runst regularly 1000 meters.
We runen regularly 1000 meters.

One-part predicates

Verbs are called as part of a sentence "predicate". The predicate is asked with" What is the subject doing? ".

One finds the predicate in a sentence by asking what the subject is doing or suffering.

Tom hits the ball. What is Tom doing? Meets.
The wind blows all day. What is the wind doing Blows.
The ball is kicked. What does the ball suffer ("do")? Is kicked.

Examples of a one-part predicate:

Tomas goes swimming.
I'm buying a pack of chewing gum.
It's very hot today.

The one-part predicate always comes second in statements.

A jumbo jet took off heading south at 7:00 p.m.
The sun shone from the blue sky.

Two-part predicates

A single verb can consist of several parts that together make up the predicate. There can also be other sentence components between the components of the verb.

Predicates can consist of several components, i.e. be in two parts. Together they make up the predicate. The two-part predicate is also called Predicate bracket. Several sentence modules can be inserted between the parts of the two-part predicate, thus creating the predicate bracket.

Examples of a two-part predicate:
I'm going to watch the movie tonight.
The seal emerged from the waves.
Timo wrote a one in the essay.
The juice bag leaked in the bag.

Depending on the use of the tense, form (active / passive) and mode (indicative / subjunctive) of the verb, the meaning of the sentence may change. That is why the predicate within a sentence is particularly important.

Put the verb in the first place in the sentence

In the prompt sentence and in the decision question the personal form of the verb comes first.

Examples of the verb in the prompt first place
Go out of my way!
Spaces open your room!
Listen on what I say!

Examples of the verb in the first place in the decision question
Do you go to sport
Do you stay at home today?

The predicate is formed from the verb of the sentence. Especially with compound times, you have to be careful with the two-part predicate. In order to correctly recognize the two-part predicate, one should repeat the tenses of the verbs.

Exercises for the predicate

The genitive object

With "Whose?" one asks about the genitive object. Nouns, a noun group, and pronouns can be genitive objects.

Exercises for the genitive object

Examples of the genitive object

The judge accuses him of an offense. Whose does the judge accuse him? An offense.
He boasts of good deeds. Whose does he boast? Good deeds.

Dative objects and accusative objects


Parts of the sentence, after which you can start with "Whose", "Whom?" or "Who or what?" asks are called objects.

Determine dative objects

With whom?" one asks about the dative object. Nouns and pronouns can be dative objects. The dative object is a sentence supplement that does not have to be included in every sentence. Some verbs require the dative object.

Examples of the dative object

Examples: Annika likes the book. Whom like the book? Annika.
Bernd waves to his neighbor. Whom is Bernd waving? The neighbor.
I forgive you. Whom do I forgive? To you.

Exercises for the dative object

Determine accusative objects

With "Who or what?" one asks about the accusative object. Nouns and pronouns can be accusative objects.

Chris strokes the dog. Whom caresses Chris? The dog.
The goalkeeper keeps a shot on goal. What does the goalkeeper hold? A shot on goal.
I've been collecting coins for years. What have I been collecting for years? Coins.

Some verbs require the accusative object

Certain verbs (transitive verbs) require the accusative object.

sign in: i reportthe car at.
spell spelled outa word.
marry: he get marriedhis girlfriend.
to take:Take you a coffee?
teach: The teacher informeda class.

Exercises for the accusative object

Adverbial provisions

Describe adverbial terms when where how and Why something happens.

Adverbial determination of time - temporal

Adverbial determinations of time (temporal adverbial, temporal determination)

The adverbial determination of time (temporal) describes when something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of time (temporal) with when, how long and how often.
Exercises for adverbial determinations

Examples of the adverbials of time

I was doing sports yesterday. When did i do sports? Yesterday.
The class was in London for two weeks. How long was the class in london? Two weeks.
We had cooks twice. How often did we cook? Twice.

Adverbial determination of place - local

Adverbial determinations of the place (local adverbial, local determination)

The adverbial determination of the place (locally) declared, Where something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of the place (locally) with where where to where from.

Examples of the adverbials of the place

I'm looking for the pen on the table. Where am I looking for the filler? On the table.
Klaus goes to the sports hall. Where is Klaus going? In the sports hall.
We come from school. Where from we come? From school.

Adverbial determination manner - modal

Adverbial determinations of manner (modal adverbial, modal determination)

The adverbial determination of the way (modal) explains how something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of the way (modal) with how.

Examples of adverbials of manner

He explains the question awkwardly. How does he explain the question? Laborious.
She gave information happily. How did she provide information? Happy.

Adverbial determination of the reason - causal

Adverbial determinations of the reason (causal adverbial, causal determination)

The adverbial determination of the reason (causal) explains Why something happens. Inquire about the adverbial determination of the reason (causal) with why, why.

Examples of the adverbials of reason

The school was canceled due to blowing snow. Why did school fail? Because of blowing snow.
The highway was blocked by an accident. Why was the highway blocked? Because of an accident.

Adverbial determination of the purpose - final

Adverbial provisions of the purpose (final adverbial, final provision)

The adverbial definition of the purpose (final) explains, what for something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of the purpose (final) with what for, for what purpose.

Examples of the adverbials of purpose

For a better understanding I read the sentence again. What for did I read the sentence again?

Adverbial determination of the condition - conditional

Adverbial determinations of the condition (conditional adverbial, conditional determination)

The adverbial definition of the condition (conditional) explains under which condition something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of the condition (conditional) with under which condition.

In rainy weather we go by car. Under what conditions do we drive the car?

Adverbial terms of the episode - consecutive

Adverbial terms of the sequence (consecutive adverbial, also: consecutive clause or following clause)

The adverbial definition of the sequence (consecutive) explains with which sequence something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of the sequence (consecutive) with which sequence. The consecutive clause is a subordinate clause.

He called out so loudly that it echoed. With what consequence did he call so loud?
She was so tired that she forgot the key. With what consequence was she so tired?

Adverbial determinations of the mean

Adverbial determinations of the means (instrumental determination)

The adverbial determination of the means (instrumental) explained, by what means something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of the means (instrumental) with with what means, with what.

He cuts the apple with the knife. By what means does he cut the apple? With the help of the knife.
She writes with the pen. By what means she writes? With the help of the pen?

Adverbial determinations of the counter-reason

Adverbial determinations of the opposite reason (concessional adverbial, concessional determination)

The adverbial definition of the counter-ground (concessive) explains, despite what circumstance something happens. Inquire about the adverbial definition of the counter-ground (concession) with despite what circumstance.

Despite all the adversities, the attempt was successful. Despite what circumstance did the attempt succeed? Despite all odds.

Prepositional objects

A Prepositional object is close to the verb. It is connected to the verb by a preposition. In the following example: "waiting for".

We are waitingat the kick-off.

Other verbs associated with a preposition: think of, concentrate on, believe in, answer to, thank for, speak to ...

The question of that Prepositional object always contains a preposition. The prepositional object can only meaningfully be queried with the preposition.

Klaus seesafter the children. What is he looking for? after the children I laugh at jokes. What am I laughing at? about jokes

Adverbial definition or prepositional object?

In the case of adverbial determinations, the preposition can sensibly be replaced by another preposition.
At Prepositional objects this does not work ...

We think of you.
We think behind you.Not correct!

Example: At adverbial determinations can the preposition be replaced by another preposition ...

Examples: Carl is standing at the cash register. Carl stands behind the cash register.

Subordinate clauses and infinitive constructions can also become prepositional objects. Then the preposition required by the verb is dropped.

Exercises for prepositional objects

Equation nominative - rules, examples

In some sentences there are two parts of the sentence that are in the nominative (1st case). One is the subject ("Who or what ...?") And one is the Equation nominative. After the equation nominative one asks with ...

who or Whatis...?" /
who or Whatare ...?"

The equation nominative is mostly a noun. Equation nominatives often appear as groups. The equality nominee is usually a profession, a sport or a nationality.

Rules of grammar for parts of sentences with exercises and rules.