Why was GST a failure


Failure, besides success, the second option for assessing results achieved in performance tests; occurs when a self-imposed goal is not achieved. This brings the conception of this term close to the level of aspiration introduced by Hoppe in the early 1930s, because one falls short of one's own aspiration. Numerous works from this period nevertheless attempted to determine failure with the help of external factors alone; the level of aspiration was therefore neglected as an internal parameter. According to studies from the 1950s, performance-related actions are accompanied on an emotional level by the expectation of possible consequences: earlier successes lead to pride and result in emotionally positive expectations regarding future performance tasks, while earlier failures through shame trigger emotionally negative expectations. Performance situations are therefore motivational through the Hope for success or the Fear of failure marked (achievement motive, motivation). The fear of failure manifests itself in a tendency to avoid performance-related situations.


Weiner, B. (1992). Human motivation. Metaphors, theories, and research. Newbury Park: Sage.