Why is my dog's skin turning dark

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abscess/ Ulcerin the dog

An abscess is a painful, purulent inflammation with swelling. An infection with bacteria starts a process that destroys the tissue and forms a pus cavity.
The defense reaction creates a very reddened inflammation that feels hot, accompanied by swelling.
If the abscess is on the eyelid, it is called stye (hordeolum).
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Alopecia / Hair lossin the dog

This does not mean the normal hair loss that every dog ​​has more or less. Hairless spots are a sign of disease.
Causes can be improper diet, parasites, eczema, hormonal diseases / disorders, genetic defects or even poisoning with thallium.
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Clipper alopecia in dogs

Hair loss and permanent damage to the top hair.
One of the main causes is seen in the summer shearing. Countless hairless spots or undercoat areas interspersed with only isolated tufts of outer hair then cover the dog's body.
Caused by the sunburn injured capillaries (the smallest blood vessels that run through the layers of the skin), which literally melt together under the heat irradiation as if they were sclerosing and thus can no longer supply the hair roots in the dog's upper layers of skin.
The result:
The fur only grows back in places or not at all.
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dermatitis/ Skin inflammationin the dog

This is an inflammation of the skin that can affect both deep and superficial layers of the skin and can occur either locally or throughout the body.
Skin diseases in dogs are usually not that easy to treat because they can be complex and many factors are involved.
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Triggers or facilitating factors can be:
Improper nutrition, stress, insufficient grooming, long, dense fur, external influences such as injuries and the resulting inflammation.
Scratching and licking the dog will further increase the inflammation.
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Canine atopic dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases in dogs.
As with humans, it is an excessive reaction of the immune system. The exact origin of the disease has not yet been clarified. However, antibodies of the IgE type against pollen or mites can sometimes be detected in the dog's blood.
Contact with the allergen causes inflammation in the skin, which can cause severe itching. The skin is injured by scratching and germs lodge in the wound.
The dog will bite and lick the affected skin, which can make the symptoms worse.
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Malassezia dermatitis in dogs
Is a yeast infection. The Malassezia yeasts are considered to be part of the normal skin flora.
In healthy skin, there is a balance between yeast and the skin's defense mechanisms. A small number of them are found in skin areas with increased moisture and warmth, such as in the external auditory canals, in the area between the toes or on the underside of the tail, without causing skin changes.
Malassezia dermatitis is a disease in which yeasts multiply on the surface of the skin and lead to a skin infection. This usually happens when the skin's defense mechanisms are weakened by another disease.
These can be diseases such as atopic dermatitis, food allergy, hormone disorders such as hypothyroidism or congenital diseases such as primary seborrhea.
Due to their special skin, some breeds show a particular sensitivity to Malassezia yeasts (breed dispositions). Dogs can also develop an allergy to malassezia with severe itching.
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Hot spot/ superficial inflammation of the skinin the dog

Translated from English, it means “hot spot”.
The itchy, crimson, mostly round skin areas give off a smelly wound secretion, which is why the disease is also referred to as acute weeping dermatitis.
Hot spots are common in dogs, especially in long or densely haired dog breeds (e.g. St. Bernard, Golden Retriever, Newfoundland, etc.).
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Causes:
The dog inflicts the hot spots on itself!
The skin inflammation is caused by excessive licking of the dog with severe itching as a result of allergies, parasite infestation (e.g. mites, ticks and fleas, injuries or other skin irritations (e.g. contact with nettles). A flea saliva allergy or a flea bite is often the trigger for this Creation of a hot spot.
Insufficient care (dirty and matted fur) can also cause itching in dogs. Warm and humid weather have a positive effect on the development of hot spots.
Therefore, skin inflammation in dogs occurs more frequently in summer than in the cold season.
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Symptoms:
Hot spots appear in dogs as painful, purulent, oozing, smelly, round patches of skin.
Sharp boundaries are created between the lesion and the surrounding healthy skin. The skin inflammation occurs mainly on the back and trunk as well as on the front of the legs. Most of the time, the secretions from the patches of skin stick to the adjacent hair.
A dog hot spot usually develops quickly. The inflammation causes the dog to lose its hair in the affected area. Usually the skin inflammation occurs only in one part of the body, but it can spread further.
The dog tries to get relief by licking and nibbling on the affected areas. However, this behavior causes the symptoms of the hot spots to worsen.
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eczema/ inflammatory changes in the skinin the dog

Eczema can be a secondary illness, such as after a flea bite or injury.
The resulting itching tempts the dog to scratch or lick itself. Mostly a bald spot can be discovered, which is reddened and possibly shows small pimples. The inflammation is in the upper layers of the skin and must be treated as soon as possible, otherwise pus will develop quickly.
Metabolic problems are often another cause. The canine organism tries to transport metabolic toxins out of the body through the resulting eczema.
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Eczema is divided into two types:
The dry, scaly eczema and the resulting weeping, purulent eczema.
The purulent eczema occurs when bacteria penetrate the inflamed areas of the skin. This results in vesicles that are filled with pus or entire areas that are wet and purulent.
Metabolic disorders can be triggered, among other things, by diet. It is possible that the liver and kidneys (the normal detoxification organs) are overloaded and that the skin takes over this function in part.
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As a clue:
  • Dry and itchy eczema indicate a disruption in the endocrine system, especially when it comes to hair loss
  • dry and flaky without systemic hair loss suggest a liver disorder and
  • Weeping, purulent eczema can indicate that the kidney is dysfunctional
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Flea bite allergy in dogs

Also called flea saliva allergy.
The flea bite allergy is a skin disease that is most commonly caused by the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis or the dog flea Ctenocephalides canis in dogs.
Severe itching is typical of this disease, causing the dog to scratch and bite. Sometimes just a small flea infestation over a short period of time is enough to trigger relatively strong reactions. Due to the relatively mild climate, we find flea bite allergies almost all year round.
This skin disease manifests itself in dogs as hairlessness, small round redness and scales in the area of ​​the trunk and the base of the tail. In some dogs, the skin changes can pull down to the hind limbs or extend into the abdominal region.
Dogs with this condition are allergic to flea saliva. When bitten by a flea, flea saliva enters the bloodstream and causes a reaction much stronger than that of normal, non-allergic dogs.
While healthy dogs tolerate a small number of flea bites without significant symptoms, even a small amount of flea infestation can lead to severe itching in dogs with flea allergies.
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Hyperkeratosis/ excessive keratinization of the skinin the dog

Congenital ball hyperkeratoses in dogs
The best known congenital ball hyperkeratosis is the familial form of the ball hyperkeratosis in the Irish Terrier and in the Bordeaux mastiff. Individual cases are also known with the Kerry Blue Terrier, Golden Retriever and Labrador Retriever.
Studies in the Irish Terrier suggest an autosomal recessive inheritance.
In autosomal recessive inheritance, the defective gene is located on a non-sex-determining (i.e. autosomal) chromosome of the mother and father. In the case of recessive inheritance, the chromosome with the genetic defect must be duplicated in order for the disease to break out. Both parents are usually healthy because they only carry the chromosome with the genetic defect once. Only if both parents pass the chromosome with the genetic defect on to one of the offspring will the offspring develop the disease. An autosomal recessive disease can therefore skip several generations.
Affected dogs show a strong thickening of the ball horn on all four paws from a few months to six months at the latest. Sometimes skin horns can also appear at the junction of the balls of the feet. This abnormal and thickened horn tends to crack and crack, which can subsequently become infected and lead to lameness.
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Acquired pad hyperkeratosis in the dog
The acquired ball hyperkeratoses can be divided into infectious, systemic or diet-related as well as immune-mediated causes. Weather conditions and training can also change the ball horn.
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Digital hyperkeratosis in the dog
Also called corny feet, it is an excessive keratinization of the skin. The term "digital" refers to the technical term for the five paw pads of the dog. Digital hyperkeratosis is a disease that occurs in the Kromfohrländer breed.
This disease is also found in Irish terriers, golden retrievers, Labrador retrievers, Bordeaux mastiffs and it is also known in Kerry blue terriers.
Digital hyperkeratosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, i.e. dogs that do not have digital hyperkeratosis themselves can inherit the disease.
Digital hyperkeratosis is divided into different degrees of severity, not all dogs suffer from it to the same extent. Affected are the pads of the dog's paws, which are cracked and show growths (horn cones) on the edges. However, not all digital hyperkeratosis dog paws have these horned cones.
The claws grow excessively and the claw ends are blunt. If you do not stop the rapid growth of the claws, the claws quickly become too long, which prevents the dog from walking and can even lead to positional errors.
In addition to the paws, the fur of digital hyperkeratosis dogs has a clearly curled structure, the hair on the head and body curls almost like a poodle.
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Therapy is symptomatic:
Daily paw care must be used for life.
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Sebadentitis/ Disease of the sebum glandsin the dog

This is a sebum disease that is believed to be caused by an autoimmune disorder.
In the case of sebadentitis, the sebum glands become inflamed or the body's own self-destruction of the sebum glands occurs. The result is hair loss in clusters, the affected areas of the skin become flaky and thicker.
Unfortunately, with this disease, the dog's organism is very susceptible to secondary diseases, which can lead to itching, eczema, weeping wounds, etc. The main thing here is to stabilize and support the protective skin.
A biopsy is used to prove this disease.
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seborrhea/ excessive sebum production by the skinin the dog

Also called primary idiopathic seborrhea, seborrhoeic dermatitis.
The primary idiopathic seborrhea is one of the hereditary skin formation disorders in dogs. Since it is hereditary, sick dogs show the first clinical symptoms as early as puppyhood, which intensify with increasing age and are often complicated by secondary bacterial infections.
The most commonly affected are the Cocker Spaniel, English Springer Spaniel, West Highland White Terriers, Basset Hounds, English Setters, and Labrador Retrievers.
In the Cocker Spaniel, studies have shown that the formation of new skin occurs much faster than in healthy dogs. New skin cells are formed in these animals within 8 days instead of 21 days. The sebum glands produce more skin lipids, which leads to oily skin, greasy hair and a build-up of wax in the outer ear canals.
Seborrhea is not a disease that is itchy from the start, but secondary infections with bacteria or yeasts can cause severe itching.
In addition to hereditary primary idiopathic seborrhea, there is the secondary seborrhea. This form of seborrhea is a secondary disease and occurs in connection with many other inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or hormonal diseases. If the underlying disease is diagnosed and successfully treated, the secondary seborrhea disappears again.
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Pododermatitis / Inflammation of the toesin the dog

Bacterial pododermatitis is an extremely common and often underdiagnosed disease of the skin between the toes in dogs.
The pathogen is usually the round bacterium Staphylococcus intermedius, a normal inhabitant of the dog's skin.
Staphylococcal pododermatitis is a follow-up infection in practically every case. This means that the balance of the skin between the toes is disturbed by another disease, the skin barrier is softened or inflamed by moisture or other external factors.
The skin's own flora (skin-resident bacteria that normally only occur in small numbers on the skin's surface) can multiply in excess due to the now more favorable conditions and penetrate deeper layers of the skin. There is reddening of the skin, greasy coverings, wounds or even bumps in the skin such as pustules or boils
The prognosis is favorable if the underlying cause can be identified and eliminated.
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The most common causes:
Bacterial pododermatitis includes allergic diseases, pododemodicosis and hormonal diseases such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or Cushing's syndrome / Cushing's disease (increased body's own cortisone production due to an overactive adrenal gland due to a pituitary gland tumor or an adrenal gland).
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Pruritus/ Itchingin the dog

Itching - medically pruritus - is not an independent disease, but a symptom of diseases of various kinds.
Parasites can also trigger the itching. Pruritus is particularly stressful for the animal and significantly disturbs its general perception. The dog's reactions to the unbearable itching in the form of biting, nibbling, scratching and scratching often lead to sequelae such as weeping wounds and self-injuries to the animal.
Itching is a discomfort on the skin that is triggered by certain messenger substances of the animal organism. The symptom instinctively arouses the dog's need to scratch and rub in order to interrupt the stimulus or cover it up with another sensation. The dog can therefore hardly be deterred from its scratching efforts, since the entire process of scratching is hardly amenable to a voluntary interruption. Itching can affect limited areas of the body or the entire body of the dog, depending on the trigger.
Itching has a very strong effect on the psyche of the affected dog. The dog can literally go crazy if there is severe itching. He reacts with violent self-harm and lasting psychological changes in behavior.
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Exogenous (external) factors
Parasite infestation by fleas, for example, can cause severe itching at bite sites. The same applies to other parasites such as mites - for example in the ears - or insect bites. External allergens, to which the animal reacts individually, are often responsible for itching. Some dogs are allergic to dust mites and flea saliva.
A bacterial attack on the skin, which can cause severe itching, is a particular possibility in neglected animals. Fungal infestation, for example Malassezia infections with the yeast Malassezia pachydermatis, is often the decisive factor in pruritus. Foreign bodies in the ears or in the skin (awns) also itch.
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Endogenous (internal) factors
Food or drug intolerances come into consideration here.
Usually these are accompanied by digestive problems.
Itching in the anal area with the typical "sledding" indicates disturbances in the area of ​​the anal glands.
Mental disorders can cause itching. Dogs that are alone too long and too often, are afraid or are abused, can react with mental itching.
Dogs begin such psychological compulsions with profuse licking, which results in itching when the skin is sore and damaged from the licking. A cycle of licking and itching begins, which can cause massive damage to the animal's skin and psyche.
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Urticaria/ Skin reaction with wheal formationin the dog

The term nettle rash (also: urticaria or urticaria) is a skin reaction with wheal formation, as it sometimes occurs in dogs.
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Common causes are:
Allergic reactions, for example to insect bites or certain medications, but also (over) sensitivity to external influences such as pressure, heat or cold.
The disease can be acute or chronic, and treatment is not always straightforward.
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Clinical picture
The nettle rash is linked to a trigger. If this is present on or in the dog's body, it reacts with the typical wheal formation.
This usually occurs very quickly, i. H. within a few seconds or minutes.
The dog's head is very often affected, but a few to a large number of wheals can also form on all other parts of the body.
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The size of the wheals is very different:
The range extends from a few millimeters to large areas of the affected skin.
Reddened areas of the skin and thin crusts (from dried secretions) are also possible. Itching may or may not be present.
Chronic cases of nettle rash are relatively rare compared to acute ones. If the trigger is eliminated, the nettle rash usually resolves on its own within a few hours, but sometimes it can take several days until no more wheals or reddening can be seen.
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Causes:
A nettle rash can have a wide variety of causes. It is also worth noting that not every dog ​​reacts equally to every potential stimulus; For example, while a flea bite remains almost invisible in one animal, another develops a sometimes violent allergic reaction to it.
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The following can be considered as triggers for a nettle rash:
- Ectoparasites such as fleas, ticks, mites, lice or even the bite of a mosquito
- bacteria (e.g. staphylococci)
- Inhalation allergens (e.g. fungal spores, grass pollen)
- Feed allergens
- Certain drugs and vaccines
- blood transfusions
- hormones, e.g. B. the estrous hormones in the cyclical bitch
- heat, UV radiation
- exposure to cold
- Strong mechanical pressure on a skin area
- Psychological stress
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Cutaneous vasculitis/ Inflammation of the blood vessels in the skinin the dog

Cutaneous vasculitis is generally defined as inflammation of the blood vessels in the skin.
The typical sign of cutaneous vasculitis is an inflammation of the small skin vessels with inflammatory deposits in and around the vessel walls. These are the remains of white blood cells that migrated into the blood vessels during the acute phase of the disease.
As the disease progresses, other blood cells can also migrate to the focus of inflammation. Often it is red blood cells that lead to a visible and palpable red rash on the skin.
Cutaneous vasculitis does not occur more often as an independent clinical picture, but in the context of other diseases. Not least for this reason, the course can vary greatly.
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