Has the image below been manipulated?
On one of the numerous accounts that share historical recordings on Twitter, I stumbled upon the image below through a retweet.
Brief information about the picture was only: Demonstration against the NSDAP in Berlin in 1932 - liked and shared hundreds of times. The picture puzzled me: the strange tension of the flag, the flag bearer, which looks like it has been installed ... My curiosity was aroused to briefly check whether the photo shows what is being claimed and perhaps additional information can be found on the Internet.
The photo can be found on numerous pages, but often with even less information than in the tweet. However, I found a very similar picture that shows the situation a few moments before or after and at a slightly different angle and detail.
On the pages of the “German Resistance Memorial Center” the scene can be found in the article “Defense of the Republic” with further information and a brief explanation:
Three arrows - symbol of the Iron Front
Demonstration in Berlin on May 1, 1932 Against monarchists, communists and National Socialists - the members of the Iron Front are committed to the Weimar constitutional state and want to protect it against its enemies. Some also see the SPD, the free trade unions and the Reichsbanner black-red-gold in the arrows.
Incidentally, Carl Weinrother is named as the photographer.
The initial question has thus been settled: The photo shows what it should show. The chance discovery of the two different recordings can, however, be used productively in history lessons:
On the one hand thematically to the final phase of the Weimar Republic. The photos clearly illustrate that there were massive protests (here probably as part of the May Day celebrations) against Hitler and the NSDAP. A perspective that, given the focus on the election results at school - if the end of the Weimar Republic is still an issue - is not always so present.
On the other hand, both images are well suited for methodical work in comparison, in order to discuss different representations and effects of the same event using photographs as a source in a comparison of perspective, detail, image composition.
Charming picture, isn't it? James Bond, aka Sean Connery, passing through to filming in Switzerland or on a promotional tour for the current film at the Deutsches Eck?
But is the photo real or manipulated?
It appeared in a city-historical Facebook group on Koblenz without further sources, where lots of old photos are posted and commented on. It was quickly exposed as a deception there. Anyone who knows the Deutsches Eck and its history knows that there was no equestrian statue on the monument base from 1945 to 1993, but only a flag since 1953 when it was rededicated as a memorial of German unity (see also the article by Marco Zerwas on PH Weekly) .
Using an online image search, you can also quickly find the original image with Sean Connery and Aston Martin that was used for the montage (e.g. here). This is an easy way to test. But does it always work? Otherwise, exposing such a photo as a fake requires precise contextual knowledge, in this case knowledge of the appearance, history and changes in the location in the background. And only those who recognize Sean Connery can roughly place the photo in time without further research.
But now the serious questions for all readers:
- Is it possible to teach students general methodical tools that they can recognize such photomontages?
- Is that a history class job?
- And if so, is that even possible in general or can it only be examined in individual cases? And what could possible learning scenarios look like?
Forced resettlement, flight and displacement 1939-1959. Atlas of the history of East Central Europe, ed. v. the Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 2009.
Great book with excellent maps to use in class. The book was originally developed by Polish scientists and was translated into German for the licensed edition of the BpB. Hence the emphasis on Polish history. However, since the entire Polish territory before and after World War II is included, there is an extended Central European perspective that also includes Germans, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Belarusians, Czechs and Slovaks. Of course, this does not cover all of the affected areas in Europe, but in my opinion this European perspective is absolutely fundamental for every type of representation and treatment. In addition to the excellent maps, the book is characterized by the successful layout, many photo images and successful information texts and overview boards. It is therefore suitable for both teachers and students to read into the topic and for presentation in the history book as a supplementary source of material.
The book can be ordered from BpB for a flat-rate provision of € 7. It would be desirable if the book were to be widely read in Germany, since the discussion about forced resettlement, flight and displacement continues to be a highly sensitive and political matter that requires a correspondingly high degree of information in the broadest possible public.
There is also a very up-to-date article on the “displaced persons dispute” in the taz, an interview with the Polish historian Tomasz Szarota.
“This project was started by Garwain-Verlag in Koblenz. The basis is the digitization of the dissertation of the proprietor Reinhard Kallenbach, which was published in 1995 and later became the basis of the 2004 volume of the monument topography Federal Republic of Germany on the city center of Koblenz. Expressly, "younger people [...] should also be enthusiastic about the city's history". For history lessons at schools in Koblenz, the pages of the old town book offer a real treasure trove not only for project work.
A proposal for a lesson on photo manipulation and digital image processing in history lessons has just been published by lehrer-online.
Here is a reference to some portals that offer good teaching material for the years 1989/1990. In addition, reference should also be made to the contemporary witness portals linked elsewhere:
We were so free is an internet archive with private films and photos from 1989 and 1990 from Germany. We are also looking for other documents, so if you like you can contribute your own pictures.
The following web portal enables a nice change of perspective:
1989-1990 Wendezeiten is an offer from the German Broadcasting Archive with sounds, images and films from GDR television.
Youth opposition in the GDR offers an extensive archive of contemporary witnesses, pictures, documents and teaching material from 1950 to 1989.
The blog entry first offers an overview of good materials and information pages on dealing with the topic of migration in history and social studies classes:
One-family album shows the photo albums of a German-Kurdish family. The pictures go back to the late 19th century and can be accessed via a family tree as well as thematically.
angekommen.com is an overview page for various web projects for migration in Rhineland and Westphalia. Particularly noteworthy are certainly the long look at Italian immigration from the German Empire to the 1960s, as well as the impressive “migration-audio-archive” with a database of narrated migration history.
Top tip is The Unwanted: an online documentary about resettlement, flight and displacement in Europe in the 20th century. The fate of refugees and displaced persons is traced and made understandable through the life stories told. Unfortunately not yet tested, but at first glance the didactic preparation in its own learning portal looks very promising.
The information portal of the Network Migration in Europe is aimed at the current situation.
Extracurricular learning locations:
Documentation center and museum about migration in Germany (DoMiD) in Cologne. Exhibitions, lectures and an extensive collection of testimonials (films, photos, everyday things, etc.) on immigration, but unfortunately only on site and not digitized: http://migrationsmuseum.de/
The Luxembourg Migration Museum in Dudelange (Center de Documentation sur les Migrations Humaines): http://www.cdmh.lu/
Finally, the German Emigration Center in Bremerhaven is looking at the issue of migration in the opposite direction. In 2007 the museum was named “European Museum of the Year”.
Book for class
Learning from History today points to a teacher methodology book on migration. The book contains material on seven life stories, which stretch from the beginning to the end of the 20th century and exemplify various aspects of immigration and dealing with social minorities in German history.
10 minute film about the territorial development of the USA based on the 13 founding states from 1789 to 1959. The presentation consists of an animated map with spoken text and can be used in bilingual history lessons or for regional studies in English lessons. It can be played in its entirety or in three parts: 1) 1789-1853, 2) until 1865 and 3) until 1959: animatedatlas: Growth of a nation
Huge pool of primary sources on US history:
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