Which country invented the 4G?
4th generation cellular (4G): LTE
Fast transmission rates make cellular networks even more efficient
LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and is the fourth generation of mobile communications (4G) to follow the previous GSM (2G) and UMTS (3G) standards. In the LTE development, in addition to further increasing transmission rates, it was also about developing a uniform global standard. Numerous options were discussed in international committees until, in September 2006, a simulated LTE connection with live applications could be demonstrated to the professional world for the first time. Two months later, the first public LTE demonstration took place in Hong Kong.
The first commercial LTE networks started in Stockholm and Oslo at the end of 2009. In Germany, LTE was introduced with the frequency auction by the Federal Network Agency in May 2010.
LTE increases the performance of cellular networks through a higher data transmission rate. This enables speeds of up to 300 Mbit / s in the downlink and 50 Mbit / s in the uplink. For the network expansion, the mobile network operators use frequencies in the ranges 800 MHz (digital dividend), 1.8 GHz and 2.6 GHz. With the frequency auction in June 2015, frequencies from the 700 MHz range were also added. These are particularly suitable for use in rural regions and have so far been used by broadcasters. They are to be gradually made available to mobile communications by 2019.
LTE technology supplies rural areas in particular with high-speed internet via mobile communications. According to the Federal Network Agency, at least 90 percent of the broadband gaps in all underserved federal states were closed by the end of November 2012. The 2015 frequency auction is now linked to the condition that nationwide broadband coverage must be guaranteed by 2018.
LTE networks are also being expanded intensively in metropolitan areas and used by more and more people. The number of active LTE subscribers in Germany increased within one year from 5.6 million users (2013) to 13 million users (2014). At the end of 2014, 28,700 LTE systems were in operation nationwide; over 10,000 more than in the previous year (2013: 17,800, source: annual report of the Federal Network Agency 2014).
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