How are vibrations caused

Vibration hazard



  • Working with hand-held and / or hand-guided machines can lead to bone and joint damage to the hand-arm-shoulder system or blood flow and nerve damage to the fingers and hands (e.g. white finger disease) or CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome).
  • Whole-body vibrations (e.g. driving in construction machinery) can damage the spine or the skeletal system.


  • Vibrations are mechanical oscillations that are transmitted to the human body and can lead to an indirect or direct risk to the safety and health of employees.
  • Hand-arm vibrations occur when working with hand machines such as B. demolition hammers, rotary hammers, drills, angle grinders, chainsaws, circular saws, soil compacting equipment. They can be transferred via handles, housings, tools and workpieces.
  • Whole-body vibrations are caused by vehicles or mobile machines, such as B. earth-moving machines, construction site trucks on uneven terrain and forklifts. They are introduced into the body through vibrating standing surfaces or seats via the feet or buttocks.
  • The vibration exposure essentially depends on:
    • the frequency,
    • the strength of the vibrations,
    • the gripping and pressing forces with hand-arm vibrations
    • the duration of the action.

Action values ​​and exposure limit values ​​for vibrations

The daily vibration exposure value A (8) is the average vibration exposure value based on an eight-hour shift.
The following applies to hand-arm vibrations:

  • Trigger value: A (8) = 2.5 m / s2.
  • Exposure limit value: A (8) = 5.0 m / s2.

For whole body vibrations:

  • Release value A (8) = 0.5 m / s2.
  • Exposure limit value A (8) = 1.15 m / s2 in the horizontal directions and A (8) = 0.8 m / s2 in the vertical direction.

Risk assessment

  • Determination of the daily exposure from exposure time and vibration values.
  • If the vibration value is not known: carry out a qualified measurement.
  • If no measurements are possible, the vibration value given in the operating instructions can be used as a comparison criterion.

Protective measures

  • Select alternative work practices that reduce exposure to vibration.
  • For new acquisitions, prefer low-vibration machines, for example vibration-damped hand-held or hand-guided machines.
  • Reduce the vibration load z. B. by reducing exposure times and changing activities.
  • Use of anti-vibration seats that are adjusted for the correct body weight.
  • Avoid breakouts, potholes and steps in the roadway.
  • Use of remote-controlled soil compaction equipment.
  • Carry out regular maintenance and servicing of the hand machines and tools.
  • Avoid dull or worn tools.
  • Keeping your hands warm, e.g. B. by means of cold-insulating or heated handles and gloves.

Reaching or exceeding the trigger value in the event of vibrations

  • Offer occupational health care.
  • Instruct employees.
  • Define a program with technical and organizational measures to reduce vibration.

Reaching or exceeding the exposure limit value in the event of vibrations

  • Initiation of immediate measures to reduce the vibration exposure below the exposure limit value.
  • Arrange for mandatory occupational health care.
  • Keep health records.

Preventive occupational health care

  • Initiate preventive occupational health care based on the result of the risk assessment (compulsory care) or offer it (preventive care offered). Advice on this from the company doctor.